Right to privacy
The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (April 2018)
The right to privacy is an element of various legal traditions that intends to restrain governmental and private actions that threaten the privacy of individuals.[failed verification] Over 150 national constitutions mention the right to privacy.
10 December 1948 the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) originally written to guarantee individual rights of everyone everywhere. The words Right to Privacy is not written in the document however, many interpret this by reading Article 12, which states:
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
Since the global surveillance disclosures of 2013, initiated by ex-NSA employee Edward Snowden, the right to privacy has been a subject of international debate. Government agencies, such as the NSA, CIA, R&AW and GCHQ, have engaged in mass, global surveillance.
Some current debates around the right to privacy include whether privacy can co-exist with the current capabilities of intelligence agencies to access and analyze many details of an individual's life; whether or not the right to privacy is forfeited as part of the social contract to bolster defense against supposed terrorist threats; and whether threats of terrorism are a valid excuse to spy on the general population.
Private sector actors can also threaten the right to privacy – particularly technology companies, such as Amazon, Apple, Meta, Google, Microsoft, and Yahoo that use and collect personal data. These concerns have been strengthened by scandals, including the Facebook–Cambridge Analytica data scandal, which focused on psychographic company Cambridge Analytica which used personal data from Facebook to influence large groups of people.
The concept of a human "right to privacy" begins when the Latin word "ius" expanded from meaning "what is fair" to include "a right – an entitlement a person possesses to control or claim something," by the Decretum Gratiani in Bologna, Italy in the 12th Century.
In the United States, an article in the 15 December 1890 issue of the Harvard Law Review, written by attorney Samuel D. Warren and future U.S. Supreme Court Justice, Louis Brandeis, entitled "The Right to Privacy", is often cited as the first explicit finding of a U.S. right to privacy. Warren and Brandeis wrote that privacy is the "right to be let alone", and focused on protecting individuals. This approach was a response to recent technological developments of the time, such as photography and sensationalist journalism, also known as "yellow journalism".
Privacy rights are inherently intertwined with information technology. In his widely cited dissenting opinion in Olmstead v. United States (1928), Brandeis relied on thoughts he developed in his 1890 article The Right to Privacy. In that dissent, he urged that personal privacy matters were more relevant to constitutional law, going so far as to say that "the government was identified as a potential privacy invader." He writes, "Discovery and invention have made it possible for the Government, by means far more effective than stretching upon the rack, to obtain disclosure in court of what is whispered in the closet." At that time, telephones were often community assets, with shared party lines and potentially eavesdropping switchboard operators. By the time of Katz, in 1967, telephones had become personal devices with lines not shared across homes and switching was electro-mechanical. In the 1970s, new computing and recording technologies raised more concerns about privacy, resulting in the Fair Information Practice Principles.
In recent years there have been few attempts to clearly and precisely define the "right to privacy".
An individual right
Alan Westin believes that new technologies alter the balance between privacy and disclosure and that privacy rights may limit government surveillance to protect democratic processes. Westin defines privacy as "the claim of individuals, groups, or institutions to determine for themselves when, how, and to what extent information about them is communicated to others". Westin describes four states of privacy: solitude, intimacy, anonymity, reserve. These states must balance participation against norms:
Each individual is continually engaged in a personal adjustment process in which he balances the desire for privacy with the desire for disclosure and communication of himself to others, in light of the environmental conditions and social norms set by the society in which he lives.
- — Alan Westin, Privacy and Freedom, 1968
Under liberal democratic systems, privacy creates a space separate from political life, and allows personal autonomy, while ensuring democratic freedoms of association and expression. Privacy to individuals is the ability to behave, think, speak, and express ideas without the monitoring or surveillance of someone else. Individuals exercise their freedom of expression through attending political rallies and choosing to hide their identities online by using pseudo names.
David Flaherty believes networked computer databases pose threats to privacy. He develops 'data protection' as an aspect of privacy, which involves "the collection, use, and dissemination of personal information". This concept forms the foundation for fair information practices used by governments globally. Flaherty forwards an idea of privacy as information control, "individuals want to be left alone and to exercise some control over how information about them is used".
Marc Rotenberg has described the modern right to privacy as Fair Information Practices: "the rights and responsibilities associated with the collection and use of personal information." Rotenberg emphasizes that the allocation of rights are to the data subject and the responsibilities are assigned to the data collectors because of the transfer of the data and the asymmetry of information concerning data practices.
Richard Posner and Lawrence Lessig focus on the economic aspects of personal information control. Posner criticizes privacy for concealing information, which reduces market efficiency. For Posner, employment is selling oneself in the labor market, which he believes is like selling a product. Any 'defect' in the 'product' that is not reported is fraud. For Lessig, privacy breaches online can be regulated through code and law. Lessig claims "the protection of privacy would be stronger if people conceived of the right as a property right", and that "individuals should be able to control information about themselves". Economic approaches to privacy make communal conceptions of privacy difficult to maintain.
A collective value and a human right
Priscilla Regan believes that individual concepts of privacy have failed philosophically and in policy. She supports a social value of privacy with three dimensions: shared perceptions, public values, and collective components. Shared ideas about privacy allow freedom of conscience and diversity in thought. Public values guarantee democratic participation, including freedoms of speech and association, and limits government power. Collective elements describe privacy as a collective good that cannot be divided. Regan's goal is to strengthen privacy claims in policy making: "if we did recognize the collective or public-good value of privacy, as well as the common and public value of privacy, those advocating privacy protections would have a stronger basis upon which to argue for its protection".
Leslie Regan Shade argues that the human right to privacy is necessary for meaningful democratic participation, and ensures human dignity and autonomy. Privacy depends on norms for how information is distributed, and if this is appropriate. Violations of privacy depend on context. The human right to privacy has precedent in the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights. Shade believes that privacy must be approached from a people-centered perspective, and not through the marketplace.
Privacy laws in different countries
Privacy laws apply to both public and private sector actors.
Australia does not have a constitutional right to privacy. However, the Privacy Act 1988 (Cth) provides a degree of protection over an individual's personally identifiable information and its usage by the government and large companies. The Privacy Act also outlines the 13 Australian Privacy Principles.
Australia also lacks a tort against invasions of privacy. In the 2001 case of Australian Broadcasting Corporation v Lenah Game Meats Pty Ltd, 208 CLR 199, the High Court of Australia explained that there stood the possibility of "a tort identified as unjustified invasion of privacy", but that this case lacked the facts to establish it. Since 2001, there have been some state-based cases—namely the 2003 case Grosse v Purvis, QDC 151; and the 2007 case Doe v Australian Broadcasting Corporation, VCC 281—that attempted to establish a tortious invasion of privacy, but these cases were settled before decisions could be met. Further, they have received conflicting analyses by later cases.
all states must abide by and be held accountable for any violation of the Constitution and the law; the law specifically protects civil rights of a citizen's personal dignity and confidentiality of correspondence.
China has a new standard and the first of its kind for the country coming into effect 1 January 2021, the Civil Code is the first of its kind sweeping law replacing all laws covering general provisions, real property, contracts, personality rights, marriage and family, inheritance, tort liability, and supplementary provisions.
In many cases raised in the legal system these rights have been overlooked as the courts have not treated each case with the same legal precedent for each case. China sees human rights as a threat and regularly spies on its citizens, largely through mass surveillance and CCTV. China is also known to censor historical events that put the government of China in a bad light and control the amount of information citizens can see beyond the country firewall.
Compared to the United States, the European Union (EU) has more extensive data protection laws.
The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is an important component of EU privacy law and of human rights law, in particular Article 8(1) of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
Under GDPR, data about citizens may only be gathered or processed under specific cases, and with certain conditions. Requirements of data controller parties under the GDPR include keeping records of their processing activities, adopting data protection policies, transparency with data subjects, appointing a Data Protection Officer, and implementing technical safeguards to mitigate security risks.
Council of Europe
The Council of Europe gathered to discuss the protection of individuals, during the Convention Treaty No.108 was created and opened for signature by members States and for accession by non-member States.
The Convention closed and the was renamed Convention 108: Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data.
Convention 108 has undergone 5 ratifications with the last ratification 10 January 1985 officially changing the name to Convention 108+ and providing the summary stating the intent of the treaty as:
The first binding international instrument which protects the individual against abuses which may accompany the collection and processing of personal data, and which seeks to regulate at the same time the transfrontier flow of personal data.
Increase use of the Internet and technological advancement in products lead to the Council of Europe to look at Convention 108+ and the relevance of the Treaty in the wake of the changes.
In 2011 the modernization of Convention 108+ started and completed in 2012 amending the treaty with Protocol CETS No223.
This modernization of Convention 108+ was in progress while the EU data protection rules were developed, the EU data protection rules would be adapted to become the GDPR.
The new data sharing policy of WhatsApp with Facebook after Facebook acquired WhatsApp in 2014 has been challenged in the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court must decide if the right to privacy can be enforced against private entities.
The Indian Supreme Court under JS Khehar, ruled on 24 August 2017, that the right to privacy is a fundamental right for Indian citizens per Article 21 of the Constitution and additionally under Part III rights. Specifically, the court adopted the three-pronged test required for the encroachment of any Article 21 right – legality – i.e. through an existing law; necessity, in terms of a legitimate state objective and proportionality, that ensures a rational nexus between the object of the invasion and the means adopted to achieve that object.
This clarification was crucial to prevent the dilution of the right in the future on the whims and fancies of the government in power. The Court adopted a liberal interpretation of the fundamental rights to meet the challenges posed an increasing digital age. It held that individual liberty must extend to digital spaces and individual autonomy and privacy must be protected.
This ruling by the Supreme Court paved the way for decriminalization of homosexuality in India on 6 September 2018, thus legalizing same-sex sexual intercourse between two consenting adults in private. India is the world's biggest democracy and with this ruling, it has joined United States, Canada, South Africa, the European Union, and the UK in recognizing this fundamental right.
In Israel privacy protection is a constitutional basic right and is therefore protected by the Basic Law. Basic Law: the Knesset passed on 12 February 1958, but the Third Knesset. The Twelfth Knesset update to the Basic Law occurred on 17 March 1992. This update added to the law Human Dignity and Liberty by defining:
Human freedom in Israel as being the right to leave the country and enter it, as well as the right to privacy and intimacy, refrainment from searches relating to one's private property, body and possessions, and avoidance of violations of the privacy of one's speech, writings and notes.
October 2006 Israel established a regulatory authority, the PPA, part of the Ministry of Justice. PPA defined the Privacy Law and associated regulates based on two principles: general right to online privacy and the protection of personal data stored in databases.
The Constitution of the Russian Federation: Article 45 states:
- State protection of human and civil rights and freedoms in the Russian Federation shall be guaranteed.
- Everyone shall the right to protect his (her) rights and freedoms by all means not prohibited by law.
The Russian Constitution specifically articles 23 and 24, institutes individual citizen the right to privacy. Russia, a member of the Strasbourg Convention, ratified processing of personal data against automatic processing and afterwards adopted a new convention. The new Russian Federal Law No.152-FZ R implemented on 27 July 2006, was updated to cover Personal Data and this law extends privacy to include personal and family secrets. Its main target is to protect individuals' personal data.
Privacy entered the forefront of Russian legislature in 2014 when the approach to privacy turned to the goal of protecting privacy of government operations and the people of Russia. The amendments originally modified the Personal Data Law which has since been renamed The Data Localisation Law. The new law requires business operators who collect any information on Russian citizens' must maintain the collected data locally. This means that data transmission, processing, and storage must be in a database in Russia. 1 March 2021, the new amendment came into effect. Consent from the data subject is required if the data operator wants to use the data publicly.
In the US, privacy and associated rights have been determined via court cases and the protections have been established through laws.
The Supreme Court in Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965) found that the Constitution guarantees a right to privacy against governmental intrusion via penumbras located in the founding text.
In 1890, Warren and Brandeis drafted an article published in the Harvard Law Review titled "The Right To Privacy" that is often cited as the first implicit finding of a U.S. stance on the right to privacy.
Right to privacy has been the justification for decisions involving a wide range of civil liberties cases, including Pierce v. Society of Sisters, which invalidated a successful 1922 Oregon initiative requiring compulsory public education; Roe v. Wade, which struck down an abortion law from Texas, and thus restricted state powers to enforce laws against abortion; and Lawrence v. Texas, which struck down a Texas sodomy law, and thus eliminated state powers to enforce laws against sodomy.
Legally, the right of privacy is a basic law which includes:
- The right of persons to be free from unwarranted publicity
- Unwarranted appropriation of one's personality
- Publicizing one's private affairs without a legitimate public concern
- Wrongful intrusion into one's private activities
In 2018, California set out to create a policy promoting data protection, the first state in the United States to pursue such protection. The resulting effort is the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), reviewed as a critical juncture where the legal definition of what privacy entails from California lawmakers' perspective. The California Consumer Protection Act is a privacy law protecting the residents of California and their Personal identifying information. The law enacts regulation over all companies regardless of operational geography protecting the six Intentional Acts included in the law.
Intentions of the CCPA Act
The intentions included in the Act provide California residents with the right to:
- Know what personal data is being collected about them.
- Know whether their personal data is sold or disclosed and to whom.
- Say no to the sale of personal data.
- Access their personal data.
- Request a business to delete any personal information about a consumer collected from that consumer.
- Not be discriminated against for exercising their privacy rights.
Governmental organizations such as the National Security Agency (NSA), CIA, and GCHQ amongst others are authorized to conduct mass surveillance throughout other nations in the world. Programs such as PRISM, MYSTIC, and other operations conducted by NATO-member states are capable of collecting a vast quantity of metadata, internet history, and even actual recordings of phone calls from various countries.
In March 2013, James Clapper, the Director of National Intelligence at the time, testified under oath that the NSA does not "wittingly" collect data on Americans. Clapper later retracted this statement.
The Government's own Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board (PCLOB) reviewed the confidential security documents, and found in 2014 that the program did have "a single instance involving a threat to the United States in which the program made a concrete difference" in counterterrorism or the disruption of a terrorist attack.
It is often claimed, particularly by those in the eye of the media, that their right to privacy is violated when information about their private lives is reported in the press. The point of view of the press, however, is that the general public has a right to know personal information about those with status as a public figure. This distinction is encoded in most legal traditions as an element of freedom of speech.
Publication of private facts
Publication of private facts speaks of the newsworthiness of private facts according to the law and the protections that private facts have. If a fact has significant newsworthiness to the public, it is protected by law under the freedom of the press. However, even if the fact is true, if it is not newsworthy, it is not necessarily protected. Digital Media Law Project uses examples such as sexual orientation, HIV status, and financial status to show that these can be publicly detrimental to the figure being posted about. The problem arises from the definition of newsworthiness.
According to Digital Media Law Project, the courts will usually side with the press in the publication of private facts. This helps to uphold the freedom of the press in the US Constitution. "there is a legitimate public interest in nearly all recent events, as well as in the private lives of prominent figures such as movie stars, politicians, and professional athletes." Digital Media Law Project supports these statements with citations to specific cases. While most recent events and prominent figures are considered newsworthy, it cannot go too far and too deep with a morbid curiosity. The media gain a lot of leverage once a person becomes a prominent figure and many things about their lives become newsworthy. Multiple cases such as Strutner v. Dispatch Printing Co., 442 N.E.2d 129 (Ohio Ct. App. 1982) show that the publication of a person's home address and full name who is being questioned by the police is valid and "a newsworthy item of legitimate public concern." The last part to consider is whether this could be considered a form of doxxing. With the court upholding the newspaper's right to publish, this is much harder to change in the future. Newsworthiness has much around it that is held up by court rulings and case law. This is not in legislation but is created through the courts, as many other laws and practices are. These are still judged on a case-by-case basis as they are often settled through a lawsuit of some form. While there is a fair amount of case law supporting newsworthiness of subjects, it is hardly comprehensive and, news publications can publish things not covered and defend themselves in court for their right to publish these facts.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2020)
In some American jurisdictions, the use of a person's name as a keyword under Google's AdWords for advertising or trade purposes without the person's consent has raised certain personal privacy concerns.
The right to privacy and social media content laws have been considered and enacted in several states, such as California's "online erasure" law protecting minors from leaving a digital trail. However, the United States is still far behind that of European Union countries in protecting privacy online. For example, the "right to be forgotten" ruling by the EU Court of Justice protects both adults and minors.
Protection of minors
Laws and courts in the UK uphold the protection of minors in the journalistic space. The Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO) in the UK have shown that the usage of footage of a 12-year-old girl being bullied in 2017 can be retroactively taken down due to fears of cyber-bullying and potential harm done to the child in the future. This was after the Mail Online published the video without any attempt to hide the identity of the child. Following the newsworthiness point, it is possible that content like this would be allowed in the United States due to the recentness of the event. Protection of minors is a different matter in the United States with new stories about minors doing certain things and their faces are shown in a news publication. The Detroit Free Press, as an example, chose to do a hard-hitting story about prostitution and drugs from a teenager but never named her or showed her face, only referring to her and the "16-year-old from Taylor". In the UK, During the case of Campbell v MGN, Lord Hope stated that the protection of minors will be handled on a case-by-case basis and affected by the child's awareness of the photo and their expectation of privacy. Many factors will be considered such as the age of the children, activity, usage of real names, etc.
The protection of minors and children in the United States often falls on the shoulders of The Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA). This protects any children under the age of 13 from the collection of their data without the parent's or guardian's permission. This law is the reason why many sites will ask if you are under 13 or require you to be 13 to sign up. While this law is good for protecting children's information, it fails to protect the information of anyone older than 13. It also begins to overlap with other privacy protection laws such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).
- Bank Secrecy Act, a US law requiring banks to disclose details of financial transactions
- Information privacy
- Internet privacy
- Nothing to hide argument
- Right to be forgotten
- Stakeholder theory
- "The Privacy Torts Archived 2017-09-08 at the Wayback Machine" (19 December 2000). Privacilla.org.
- "Right to Privacy". faculty.uml.edu. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
- "Read about "Right to privacy" on Constitute". constituteproject.org. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
- Nations, United. "Universal Declaration of Human Rights". United Nations. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
- Kozlowska, Hanna. "The Cambridge Analytica scandal affected nearly 40 million more people than we thought". Quartz. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
- James Griffin (1 November 2007). "The Human Right to Privacy" (PDF). San Diego Law Review. p. 3. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
- Warren, Samuel; Brandeis, Louis D. (1890). "The Right to Privacy". Harvard Law Review. 4: 193. Archived from the original on 23 October 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
- Sharp, Tim (12 June 2013). "Right to Privacy: Constitutional Rights & Privacy Laws". livescience.com. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
- Westin, A. (1968). Privacy and Freedom (Fifth ed.). New York.: Atheneum.
- Flaherty, D. (1989). Protecting privacy in surveillance societies: The federal republic of Germany, Sweden, France, Canada, and the United States. Chapel Hill, U.S.: The University of North Carolina Press.
- Allen, A. & Rotenberg, M. (2016). Privacy Law and Society. West Academic.[page needed][ISBN missing]
- , Posner, R. A. (1981). "The economics of privacy". The American Economic Review, 71(2), 405–409.
- Lessig, L. (2006). Code: Version 2.0. New York, U.S.: Basic Books.
- Johnson, Deborah (2009). Beauchamp; Bowie; Arnold (eds.). Ethical theory and business (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. pp. 428–442. ISBN 978-0136126027.
- Regan, P. M. (1995). Legislating Privacy: Technology, social values, and public policy. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.[ISBN missing][page needed]
- Shade, L. R. (2008). "Reconsidering the right to privacy in Canada". Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 28(1), 80–91.
- Donaldson, Morag (14 March 2005), "Do Australians have a legal right to privacy?" (PDF), Parliament of Australia, retrieved 14 November 2021
- "Australian Privacy Principles". Office of the Australian Information Commissioner. Archived from the original on 14 November 2021. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
- Australian Broadcasting Corporation v Lenah Game Meats Pty Ltd, 208 CLR 199, pg. 249 (High Court of Australia 15 November 2001) ("In the course of his judgment, Latham CJ rejected the proposition that under the head of nuisance the law recognised a right of privacy (232). But the decision does not stand for any proposition respecting the existence or otherwise of a tort identified as unjustified invasion of privacy.").
- "A common law action for breach of privacy in Australia?". Australian Law Reform Commission. 27 March 2014. Archived from the original on 14 November 2021. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
- Wang, Hao. Protecting Privacy in China: A Research on China's Privacy Standards and the Possibility of Establishing the Right to Privacy and the Information Privacy Protection Legislation in Modern China. Heidelberg: Springer, 2011. Print.
- Horsley, Jamie P. (29 January 2021). "How will China's privacy law apply to the Chinese state?". Brookings. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
- "The adoption of the Chinese Civil Code and its implications on contracts relating to China | Perspectives | Reed Smith LLP". www.reedsmith.com. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
- Hoofnagle, Chris Jay; Sloot, Bart van der; Borgesius, Frederik Zuiderveen (2 January 2019). "The European Union general data protection regulation: what it is and what it means". Information & Communications Technology Law. 28 (1): 65–98. doi:10.1080/13600834.2019.1573501. hdl:11245.1/8a9b1909-1ce8-478f-b3fc-be5126911846. ISSN 1360-0834. S2CID 86416362.
- "Full list". Treaty Office. Retrieved 12 June 2021.
- Communication, C 2017, ABC Design &. "Тhe Protocol amending the Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal has been adopted – КЗЛД". cpdp.bg. Retrieved 12 June 2021.
- "Whatsapp-Facebook Privacy Case – Supreme Court Observer". Supreme Court Observer. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
- "For the Many and the Few: What a Fundamental Right to Privacy Means for India". The Wire. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
- "Supreme Court Observer". scobserver.in. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
- "Too Lazy to Read Right to Privacy Ruling? Here's the TL;DR Version". The Quint. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
- "Andhrastar – Breaking News, Andhra News, Telangana News, India News, Bollywood, Tollywood News, World News". andhrastar.com. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
- "Basic Laws". The Knesset. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
- "Official Website of the Government of the Russian Federation / The Russian Government". archive.government.ru. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
- "Russia: Amendments to the Federal Law On Personal Data Takes Effect". The National Law Review. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
- "The Right of Privacy The Issue: Does the Constitution protect the right of privacy? If so, what aspects of privacy receive protection?". University of Missouri – Kansas City School of Law. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
- R.H. Clark (1974). "Constitutional Sources of the Penumbral Right to Privacy". Villanova Law Review. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
- "The Legal Right to Privacy | Stimmel Law". www.stimmel-law.com. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
- Andy Greenberg (7 May 2015). "Court Rules NSA Bulk Data Collection Was Never Authorized By Congress". Wired. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
- James Bamford (15 March 2012). "The NSA Is Building the Country's Biggest Spy Center (Watch What You Say)". Wired. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
- Andrew Blake (6 March 2019). "James Clapper denies lying to Congress about NSA surveillance program". Associated Press. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
- Mark Rumold (23 January 2014). "Privacy Oversight Board Agrees with EFF: Mass Surveillance Is Illegal and Must End". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
- "Publication of Private Facts". Digital Media Law Project. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "Strutner v. Dispatch Printing Co., 442 N.E.2d 129 (Ohio Ct. App. 1982)". Court Listener. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
- Fishman, Ross. "Bad Precedent: Lawyer Censured for Buying Google Keywords for Other Lawyers and Law Firms". The National Law Review. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- "Robert L. Habush and Daniel A. Rottier, Plaintiffs-Appellants, v. William M. Cannon, Patrick O. Dunphy and Cannon & Dunphy, S.C., Defendants-Respondents Archived 2013-05-14 at the Wayback Machine" (PDF). Case No.: 2011AP1769. Court of Appeals of Wisconsin Published Opinion. Opinion filed: 21 February 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- Zurbriggen, Eileen L.; Hagai, Ella Ben; Leon, Gabrielle (2016). "Negotiating privacy and intimacy on social media: Review and recommendations". Translational Issues in Psychological Science. 2 (3): 248–260. doi:10.1037/tps0000078.
- Morris; Brigit; Davies, Maire (1 February 2018). "Can Children's Privacy Rights Be Adequately Protected through Press Regulation? What Press Regulation Can Learn from the Courts". Journal of Media Law. 10 (1): 92–113. doi:10.1080/17577632.2018.1467597. S2CID 150018753.
- Kovanis, Georgea. "She Was Prostituting, Pregnant, Doing Drugs by 14. Now, Taylor Girl Fights to Save Her Own Life". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
- "Children's Protection". Federal Trade Commission. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
- Mordini, Emilio. "Nothing to Hide: Biometrics, Privacy and Private Sphere". In: Schouten, Ben, Niels Christian Juul, Andrzej Drygajlo, and Massimo Tistarelli (editors). Biometrics and Identity Management: First European Workshop, BIOID 2008, Roskilde, Denmark, 7–9 May 2008, Revised Selected Papers. Springer Science+Business Media, 2008. pp. 245–258. ISBN 978-3540899907. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-89991-4_27.
- Singleton, Solveig (2008). "Privacy". In Hamowy, Ronald (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; Cato Institute. pp. 390–392. doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n242. ISBN 978-1412965804. LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024.
- Lever, Annabelle. "Feminism, Democracy and the Right to Privacy" (Archive; archive). Minerva – An Internet Journal of Philosophy. ISSN 1393-614X. 2005. Volume 9.
- Moore, Adam D. Privacy Rights: Moral and Legal Foundations (Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010). ISBN 978-0271036861.
- "The Privacy Torts Archived 2017-09-08 at the Wayback Machine" (19 December 2000). Privacilla.org, a "web-based think tank", devoted to privacy issues, edited by Jim Harper ("About Privacilla Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine")