Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation

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Nigerian National Petroleum Company
TypeState-owned enterprise
IndustryOil and gas
Founded1977; 45 years ago (1977)
HeadquartersAbuja, FCT, Nigeria
Key people
Mele Kyari (GMD)
ProductsCrude Oil, Gas, petroleum products, petrochemicals,

The Nigerian National Petroleum Company Limited (NNPC) is a for profit oil corporation in Nigeria. Formerly a government-owned corporation, it was transformed from a corporation to a limited liability company in July 2022. The NNPC is the only entity licensed to operate in the country's petroleum industry. It partners with foreign oil companies to exploit Nigeria's fossil fuel resources.


Headquarters of the NNPC

NNPC was established on 1 April 1977 as a merger of the Nigerian National Oil Corporation and the Federal Ministry of Petroleum and Energy Resources.[1] NNPC by law manages the joint venture between the Nigerian federal government and a number of foreign multinational corporations, which include Royal Dutch Shell, Agip, ExxonMobil, TotalEnergies, Chevron, and Texaco (now merged with Chevron). Through collaboration with these companies, the Nigerian government conducts petroleum exploration and production.[1] In 2007, the head of the Nigerian wing of Transparency International said salaries for NNPC workers were too low to prevent graft.[2]

The NNPC Towers in Abuja is the headquarters of NNPC. Consisting of four identical towers, the complex is located on Herbert Macaulay Way, Central Business District Abuja. NNPC also has zonal offices in Lagos, Kaduna, Port Harcourt and Warri. It has an international office located in London, United Kingdom.[3] In October 2019, NNPC stated that it had signed a $2.5 billion pre-payment agreement with Nigeria LNG for upstream gas development projects.[4] hi

In December 2021, the Federal Government of Nigeria and the Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) Ltd signed a N621 billion Memorandum of Understanding to finance the construction of critical road infrastructure in Nigeria.[5]

Following passage of a fossil fuel industry reform bill in August 2021, the government of Nigeria announced on July 18, 2022, that NNPC will "now operate as a commercial entity without relying on government funding and direct controls". NNPC was established as a limited liability corporation in the hopes that a private entity will find it easier to access international capital markets. The company will continue to bear responsibility for distributing and selling fuel in Nigeria, but the state will now assume the responsibility of subsidizing the cost of fuel.[6]


President Buhari appointed Mele Kyari as the new Group Managing Director (GMD) Of NNPC.[7] Kyari replaces Maikanti Baru. The new GMD and the other appointed NNPC officials would work alongside the current officers in the same position until the 7 July 2019.[8]

Dr. Maikanti Baru (7 July 1959 – 29 May 2020) was the former Group Managing Director (GMD). He was appointed Group Managing Director on 4 July 2016, under the presidency of Muhammadu Buhari; he succeeded Dr. Emmanuel Ibe Kachikwu, the Nigerian Minister of State for Petroleum (2015–2019).[9]

Organisational structure[edit]

The NNPC's business operations are managed through Strategic Business and Corporate Services Units (SBUs/CSUs) in diverse locations across Nigeria. In that case; The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation initiated a recruitment scheme and since then, until date the NNPC recruitment have been a yearly scheme.[10]

The NNPC Group comprises the NNPC Board, the group managing director's office, Seven operational units as listed below. Each of the units is headed by a chief operating officer (COO). Its divisions are headed by group general managers (GGM), while its subsidiary companies are headed by managing directors.[11] NNPC has several subsidiaries, two partly owned subsidiaries and 16 associated companies.

Autonomous Business Units:

  • Upstream Company
  • Downstream Company
  • Refining Company
  • Ventures Company
  • Gas & Power Company

Corporate Services Units:

  • Finance and Accounts
  • Corporate Services

Strategic Business & Corporate Services Units:

National Petroleum Investment and Management Service NNPC Trading Company
Crude Oil Marketing Division Nigerian Petroleum Development Company
Government & Labour Relations Integrated Data Services Limited
Corporate Secretariat, Legal Division NNPC Retail Limited
Corporate Social Responsibility Petroleum Products Marketing Company
Marine Logistics Nigeria Pipeline & Storage Company
Renewable Energy/Frontiers Exploration Kaduna Refining & Petrochemicals Company
Group Public Affairs Division Warri Refining & Petrochemicals Company
Financial Controller Port Harcourt Refining Company PHRC
Treasury Gas & Power Investments Company
Liabilities Management Nigeria Gas Marketing Company
Group Human Resources Division Nigeria Gas Company
Engineering & Technology NNPC Properties
Information Technology Division/SAP NNPC Shipping with NIDAS & NIKORMA as Independent Subsidiaries
NNPC Medical Services National Engineering & Technical Company
NNPC Leadership Academy NNPC Oilfield Services
Nigeria LNG Limited NLNG NNPC Pension Fund


NNPC has sole responsibility for upstream and downstream developments, and is also charged with regulating and supervising the oil industry on behalf of the Nigerian Government. In 1988, the corporation was commercialised into 11 strategic business units, covering the entire spectrum of oil industry operations: exploration and production, gas development, refining, distribution, petrochemicals, engineering, and commercial investments.[12] On Wednesday July 10, 2019 at a meeting of Nigeria’s revenue generating and monitoring agencies with the leadership of the Senate at the National Assembly Complex, Abuja, the group's managing director, Mele Kyari called for adequate funding of the petroleum sector.[13] The subsidiary companies include the Nigerian Petroleum Development Company (NPDC).

Legal premise[edit]

According to the Nigerian constitution, all minerals, gas, and oil the country possesses are legally the property of the Nigerian federal government. As such, the oil corporations operating in Nigeria appropriate portions of their revenue to the government, which accrues nearly 60% of the revenue generated by the oil industry in this manner. The revenue gained by the NNPC accounts for 76% of federal government revenue[2] and 40% of the entire country's GDP. As of 2000, oil and gas exports account for 98% of Nigerian export earnings.[14]

Corruption at the NNPC[edit]

KPMG Report[edit]

In December 2011, the Nigerian government permitted a forensic report conducted by KPMG to be published. The audit, commissioned by the Ministry of Finance following concerns over the NNPC's transparency, detailed the NNPC's sharp business practices, violation of regulations, illegal deductions of funds belonging to the state, and failure to account for several billions of naira that should go to the federation account.[15]

Auditors found that between 2007 and 2009 alone, the NNPC over-deducted funds in subsidy claims to the tune of N28.5 billion. It has not been able to account for the sum ever since.[16]

Willbros Group Inc[edit]

In May 2008, Willbros Group Inc, a US company, admitted to making corrupt payments totalling over $6.3 million to officials at the NNPC and its subsidiary NAPIMS, in return for assistance in obtaining and retaining contracts for work on the Eastern Gas Gathering System (EGGS).[17]

ABB Vetco Gray[edit]

In July 2004, ABB Vetco Gray, a US company, and its UK subsidiary ABB Vetco Gray UK Ltd, admitted to paying over $1 million in bribes to officials at NNPC subsidiary NAPIMS in exchange for obtaining confidential bid information and favourable recommendations from Nigerian government agencies.[18]

Trafigura and Vitol[edit]

In November 2013 after a report was published by Swiss Non-governmental advocacy organisation – Erklärung von Bern – allegations of heavy fraud surfaced, placing the NNPC under suspicion of siphoning off $6.8 billion in crude oil revenues.[19][20][21]

Unremitted funds (2013–2014)[edit]

On 9 December 2013, a letter from the Central Bank of Nigeria Governor, Sanusi Lamido Sanusi to the President of Nigeria, Goodluck Ebele Jonathan, dated show of 25 September 2013 details that the NNPC had not remitted over $49.8 billion proceeds of crude oil sales to the Government surfaced.[22] On 13 December 2013, NNPC responded that no money was missing. Reconciliation Committee (comprising representatives of (i) CBN (ii) NNPC (iii) DPR (iv) FIRS (v) OAGF (vi) The Budget Office of the Federation (vii) Federal Ministry of Finance (viii) Federal Ministry of Petroleum Resources) was set up.[23]

The Reconciliation Committee estimated unremitted funds at $10.8bn on 18 December 2013 while CBN changed its claim to $12bn. CBN then informed senate committee on Finance on 4 February 2014 that NNPC needs to account for $20bn as the CBN could only confirm receipt of $47bn out of $67bn revenue for the period under review.[24] The then Finance Minister recommended the conduct of an independent Forensic Audit and PwC was officially appointed by the office of the Auditor General of the Federation (AuGF) to conduct a forensic audit into the allegations.[23]

Among the conclusions reached by PwC at the end of their work, as stated in their report, which was made public are:

1. Total cash remitted into the Federation accounts in relation to crude oil liftings was $50.81bn and NOT $47bn as earlier stated by the Reconciliation Committee for the period from January 2012 to July 2013.[23]

2. NNPC has provided information on the difference leading to a potential excess remittance of $0.74 billion (without considering expected remittances from NPDC). Other indirect costs of $2.83 billion which were not part of the submission to the Senate Committee hearing have been defrayed to arrive at this position.[23]

3. A major consideration centres on the ownership of oil and gas assets controlled by NPDC. Subject to additional information being provided, we estimate that the NNPC and NPDC should refund to the Federation Account a minimum of $1.48billion as summarised in the next page.[23]

No staff of the NNPC or Ministry of Petroleum has so far been punished, though on Thursday, 20 February 2014, the whistle-blowing CBN Governor was suspended from office by the President.[24]

Unremitted funds (2016)[edit]

An official audit reported in March 2016 that the NNPC had failed to pay US$1.6 billion.[25]


  1. ^ a b Nwokeji, G. Ugo (2007). The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation and the Development of The Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry: History, Strategies and Current Directions (PDF). Rice University: The James A. Baker III Institute For Public Policy, Rice University. p. 16.
  2. ^ a b "Reforming the oil industry". The Economist. The Economist Newspaper Limited. 29 September 2007.
  3. ^ "NNPC Directory". Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  4. ^ "Nigeria's state oil company signs $2.5 billion pre-payment deal for gas projects with NLNG". Reuters. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  5. ^ "Nigeria : accord entre le gouvernement et la compagnie pétrolière nationale pour le financement des routes". Financial Afrik (in French). 22 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  6. ^ Clowes, William (19 July 2022). "Nigeria's State-Owned Energy Firm Starts Commercial Operations". Bloomberg Energy. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  7. ^ "JUST IN: Buhari drops Baru appoints Mele Kyari new GMD NNPC". 20 June 2019. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  8. ^ "Buhari Appoints Kyari As New Group Managing Director Of NNPC, Replaces Maikanti Baru". Sahara Reporters. 20 June 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  9. ^ "Buhari Appoints Kyari As New Group Managing Director Of NNPC, Replaces Maikanti Baru". Sahara Reporters. 20 June 2019. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
  10. ^ admin (24 September 2019). "NNPC Profile, Law, Structure & NNPC Unremitted Funds". Aziza Nigeria. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  11. ^ "Executive Management". Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  12. ^ "Operators". Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  13. ^ "NNPC Calls for Adequate Funding of Petroleum Sector". Oak TV Newstrack. 11 July 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  14. ^ "Africa's biggest oil producer | Doing Business In". Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  15. ^ Musikilu Mojeed (9 December 2011). "Monumental Oil Subsidy Fraud And Corruption at the NNPC-The Damning KPMG Report :Premium Times". Sahara Reporters.
  16. ^ ENERGY AND NATURAL RESOURCES (22 November 2010). "Current State Assessment Report on the Process and Forensic Review of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (Project Anchor)" (PDF). Federal Ministry of Finance.
  17. ^ Department of Justice (14 May 2008). "WillBros Group Inc. Enters Deferred Prosecution Agreement and Agrees to Pay $22 Million Penalty for FCPA Violations". Department of Justice.
  18. ^ Department of Justice (6 July 2004). "ABB VETCO GRAY, INC. AND ABB VETCO GRAY UK LTD. PLEAD GUILTY TO FOREIGN BRIBERY CHARGES". Department of Justice.
  19. ^ "Nigeria lawmakers order probe of NNPC, Swiss oil dealers' $6.8 billion scandal - Premium Times Nigeria". Premium Times Nigeria. 12 November 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  20. ^ "House Probes Collusion between NNPC, Swiss and Nigerian Traders, Articles | THISDAY LIVE". Archived from the original on 16 November 2013.
  21. ^ "Traders collude in oil corruption, says Swiss NGO". Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  22. ^ Abdul-Baki, Zayyad (14 June 2019). "The role of accounting in conflicts resolution: The case of PwC's forensic audit of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation". Managerial Auditing Journal. 36 (2): MAJ–03–2018-1835. doi:10.1108/MAJ-03-2018-1835. ISSN 0268-6902. S2CID 197829735.
  23. ^ a b c d e PwC Final Report on NNPC forensic audit 2015 (PDF). Vanguard Newspaper Download of PwC Report (Report). Price Waterhouse Coopers. April 2015. p. 199. Retrieved 25 August 2015.Investigative Forensic audit of crude oil revenues and remittances by Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) (January 2012 – July 2013)
  24. ^ a b admin (8 July 2018). "NNPC Again !!!". THISDAYLIVE. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  25. ^ "Nigeria's NNPC 'failed to pay' $16bn in oil revenues". BBC News. Retrieved 15 March 2016.

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