List of political entities in the 19th century

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This is a list of political entities in the 19th century (1801–1900) AD. It includes both sovereign states, self-declared unrecognized states, and any political predecessors of current sovereign states.

Political entities[edit]

Flag Name Capital(s) Type Existed Region Today part of
Portuguese Angola Luanda Colony, Portuguese 1575–1975 Africa: Central Angola
Kingdom of Kongo São Salvador Kingdom/client 1390–1914 Africa: Central Angola
Kasanje Kingdom Not specified Kingdom 1620–1910 Africa: Central Angola
Kamerun Yaoundé Colony, Germany 1884–1916 Africa: Central Cameroon
Sultanate of Bagirmi Chekna Sultanate 1522–1897 Africa: Central Chad
French Chad Fort Lamy Colony, French 1900–1960 Africa: Central Chad
Wadai Empire Abéché Empire 1635–1909 Africa: Central Chad
Congo Free State Boma Kingdom 1885–1908 Africa: Central Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kuba Kingdom Not specified Kingdom c.1600–19th century Africa: Central Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kingdom of Luba Mwibele Kingdom 1585–1889 Africa: Central Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kingdom of Lunda Not specified Kingdom c.1665–1887 Africa: Central Democratic Republic of the Congo
Yeke Kingdom Bunkeya Kingdom 1856–1891 Africa: Central Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kingdom of Orungu Kingdom c.1700–1927 Africa: Central Gabon
Anziku Kingdom Kingdom 17th century–1875 Africa: Central Republic of the Congo
French Congo Colony, French 1882–1910 Africa: Central Republic of the Congo
Kingdom of Loango Kingdom c.1550–c.1883 Africa: Central Republic of the Congo
Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe Colony, Portuguese 1470–1975 Africa: Central São Tomé and Príncipe
Kazembe chiefdom Chiefdom 1740–1904 Africa: Central Zambia
Sultans of the Comoros Sultanate 15th century–c.1912 Africa: East Comoros
Merina Kingdom Antananarivo Kingdom 1540–1897 Africa: East Madagascar
Medri Bahri Debarwa Kingdom 1137–1890 Africa: East, Horn Eritrea
Sultanate of Aussa Asaita Sultanate 1734–1902 Africa: East, Horn Ethiopia
Ethiopian Empire Addis Ababa Empire 1137–1935; 1942–1974 Africa: East, Horn Ethiopia
Kingdom of Garo Kingdom 1567–1883 Africa: East, Horn Ethiopia
Kingdom of Gomma Kingdom c.1780–1886 Africa: East, Horn Ethiopia
Kingdom of Gumma Kingdom c.1770–1902 Africa: East, Horn Ethiopia
Kingdom of Janjero Kingdom 15th century–1894 Africa: East, Horn Ethiopia
Kingdom of Jimma Kingdom 1790–1932 Africa: East, Horn Ethiopia
Kingdom of Kaffa Kingdom c.1390–1897 Africa: East, Horn Ethiopia
Kingdom of Limmu-Ennarea Kingdom 1801–1891 Africa: East, Horn Ethiopia
Kingdom of Welayta Kingdom c.1250–1894 Africa: East, Horn Ethiopia
British Somaliland Hargeisa Colony, British 1884–1940; 1941–1960 Africa: East, Horn Somaliland
Sultanate of Hobyo Sultanate 1878–1926 Africa: East, Horn Somalia
Majeerteen Sultanate Sultanate c.1600–1924 Africa: East, Horn Somalia
Isaaq Sultanate Hargeisa Sultanate ~1750s–1884 Africa: East, Horn Somaliland
Kingdom of Burundi Kingdom 1680–1966 Africa: East, Lakes Burundi
Wituland 1858–1885 Africa: East, Lakes Kenya
Kingdom of Rwanda Kingdom 11th century–1962 Africa: East, Lakes Rwanda
Shilluk Kingdom Fashoda Kingdom c.1490–1865 Africa: East, Lakes South Sudan
Sultanate of Zanzibar Sultanate 1856–1964 Africa: East, Lakes Tanzania
Ankole Kingdom late 15th century–1967 Africa: East, Lakes Uganda
Buganda Kampala Kingdom early 14th century–1967 Africa: East, Lakes Uganda
Bunyoro Kingdom 16th century–1967 Africa: East, Lakes Uganda
Khedivate of Egypt Khedivate 1867–1914 Africa: Northeast Egypt
Funj Sultanate Sultanate 1504–1821 Africa: Northeast Sudan
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Colony, British/Egyptian 1899–1956 Africa: Northeast Sudan
Sultanate of Darfur Sultanate 1603–1874; 1898–1916 Africa: Northeast Sudan
French Algeria Colony, French 1830–1962 Africa: Northwest Algeria
Ottoman Algeria Algiers Quasi-independent Territory, Ottomans 1517–1830 Africa: Northwest Algeria
Sultanate of Morocco Fes Sultanate 1668–1912 Africa: Northwest Morocco
Spanish Sahara Territory, Spanish 1884–1975 Africa: Northwest Western Sahara
Bechuanaland Protectorate Protectorate 1885–1966 Africa: South Botswana
Basutoland 1884–1966 Africa: South Lesotho
Maravi Late 15th century–1870 Africa: South Malawi
Gaza Empire Empire 1824–1895 Africa: South Mozambique
Portuguese Mozambique Colony, Portuguese 1498–1975 Africa: South Mozambique
Angoche Sultanate Angoche, Moma Sultanate 1485–1910 Africa: South Mozambique 
German South West Africa Colony, German 1884–1915 Africa: South Namibia
Kaapstad Colony, Dutch Africa: South South Africa
Mthethwa Paramountcy Empire c.1780–1817 Africa: South South Africa
Colony of Natal Colony, British 1843–1910 Africa: South South Africa
Nieuwe Republiek Republiek 1884–1888 Africa: South South Africa
Cape Colony Cape Town Colony, British 1795–1910 Africa: South South Africa
Orange Free State 1854–1902 Africa: South South Africa
South African Republic Republic 1856–1877; 1881–1902; 1914–1915 Africa: South South Africa
Transvaal Colony Colony, British 1877–1881; 1902–1910 Africa: South South Africa
Zulu Kingdom Kingdom 1816–1897 Africa: South South Africa
Kingdom of Eswatini 1745–1906; 1968–present Africa: South Swaziland
Barotseland 17th century–1900 Africa: South Zambia
Mthwakazi 1830s–1889 Africa: South Zimbabwe
Rozvi Empire Empire 1660–1866 Africa: South Zimbabwe
Company rule in Rhodesia by the British South Africa Company Company rule 1890–1924 Africa: South Zimbabwe
Dahomey Kingdom c.1600–1904 Africa: West Benin
Mossi Kingdoms Kingdoms 11th century–1896 Africa: West Burkina Faso
Portuguese Cape Verde Colony, Portuguese 1462–1975 Africa: West Cape Verde
Bornu Empire (Kanem–Bornu) Ngazargamu Empire 1380–1893 Africa: West Chad
Gambia Colony and Protectorate Colony, British 1821–1965 Africa: West Gambia
Kingdom of Ashanti Empire 1670–1902; 1935–1957 Africa: West Ghana
Gyaaman 1450–1895 Africa: West Ghana
Fante Confederacy Confederation 1868–1874 Africa: West Ghana
Portuguese Guinea Colony, Portuguese 1474–1974 Africa: West Guinea
Imamate of Futa Jallon Imamate 1725–1896 Africa: West Guinea 
Wassoulou Empire Empire 1878–1898 Africa: West Guinea 
Baté Empire Empire until 1879 Africa: West Guinea 
Kong Empire Empire 1710–1898 Africa: West Ivory Coast
Republic of Maryland Republic 1854–1857 Africa: West Liberia
Liberia Republic 1847–present Africa: West Liberia
Kaabu Kingdom 1537–1867 Africa: West Mali 
Kénédougou Kingdom Kingdom c.1650–1898 Africa: West Mali 
Khasso Kingdom 17th century–1880 Africa: West Mali 
Bamana Empire Empire 1712–1861 Africa: West Mali 
Kaarta 1753–1890 Africa: West Mali 
Pashalik of Timbuktu 1591–1833 Africa: West Mali 
Toucouleur Empire Empire 1848–1893 Africa: West Mali 
Massina Empire Empire c.1818–1862 Africa: West Mali 
Sultanate of Damagaram Sultanate 1731–1851 Africa: West Niger
Dendi Kingdom: Askiya Dynasty Kingdom 1591–1901 Africa: West Niger
Aro Confederacy Confederation 1690–1902 Africa: West Nigeria
Kano Emirate Emirate 1807–1903 Africa: West Nigeria
Kingdom of Nri Igbo-Ukwu Kingdom 948–1911 Africa: West Nigeria
Sokoto Caliphate Caliphate 1804–1903 Africa: West Nigeria
Oyo Empire Oyo-Ile Kingdom c.1400–1896 Africa: West Nigeria
Kingdom of Benin Benin City Empire 1180–1897 Africa: West Nigeria 
French West Africa Colony, French 1895–1958 Africa: West Senegal
Cayor Kingdom 1549–1879 Africa: West Senegal
Imamate of Futa Toro Imamate 1776–1861 Africa: West Senegal
Kingdom of Jolof Kingdom 1549–1875 Africa: West Senegal
Bundu 17th century–1858 Africa: West Senegal
Kingdom of Sine Kingdom 1350–1969 Africa: West Senegal
Baol Kingdom 1555–1874 Africa: West Senegal 
Kingdom of Koya Kingdom 1505–1896 Africa: West Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone Colony and Protectorate Colony, British 1800–1961 Africa: West Sierra Leone
German Togoland 1884–1916 Africa: West Togo
Colonial Antigua Colony, British 1632–1981 Americas: Caribbean Antigua
Colony of the Bahamas Colony, British 1648–1973 Americas: Caribbean Bahamas
Colonial Barbados 1627–1958; 1962–1966 Americas: Caribbean Barbados
Captaincy General of Cuba Territory, Spanish 1607–1898 Americas: Caribbean Cuba
Colonial Dominica Colony, British 1715–1978 Americas: Caribbean Dominica
Dominican Republic Republic 1844–1861; 1865–present Americas: Caribbean Dominican
Colonial Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Colony, British 1763–1979 Americas: Caribbean Grenadines
First Empire of Haiti Empire 1804–1806 Americas: Caribbean Haiti
Third Haitian Republic 1859–present Americas: Caribbean Haiti
Kingdom of Haiti Kingdom 1811–1820 Americas: Caribbean Haiti
State of Haiti 1806–1811 Americas: Caribbean Haiti
Saint-Domingue Colony, French 1625–1804 Americas: Caribbean Haiti
Colonial Saint Lucia Colony, British 1762–1979 Americas: Caribbean Saint Lucia
Colonial Trinidad and Tobago Colony, British 1889–1962 Americas: Caribbean Trinidad and Tobago
British Honduras Colony, British 1862–1981 Americas: Central Belize
Costa Rica 1823–present Americas: Central Costa Rica
El Salvador 1841–present Americas: Central El Salvador
United Provinces of Central America Republic 1823–1838 Americas: Central Guatemala
Federal Republic of Central America Republic 1823–1838 Americas: Central Guatemala
Captaincy General of Guatemala Territory, Spanish 1609–1821 Americas: Central Guatemala
Guatemala 1823–present Americas: Central Guatemala
Greater Republic of Central America Republic 1896–1898 Americas: Central Honduras
Honduras 1838–present Americas: Central Honduras
Mosquito Coast 1838–1894 Americas: Central Nicaragua
Nicaragua 1894–present Americas: Central Nicaragua
Canada Kingdom 1867–present Americas: North Canada
Republic of Manitoba Republic 1867–1870 Americas: North Canada
Greenland Company rule 1774–1908 Americas: North Greenland
Chan Santa Cruz c.1850–1901 Americas: North Mexico
First Mexican Empire Empire 1821–1823 Americas: North Mexico
Mexico Republic 1867–present Americas: North Mexico
Republic of the Rio Grande Republic 1840–1840 Americas: North Mexico
Second Mexican Empire Empire 1864–1867 Americas: North Mexico
Republic of Sonora Republic 1854–1854 Americas: North Mexico
Republic of Yucatán Republic 1823; 1841–1848 Americas: North Mexico
California Republic Republic 1846–1846 Americas: North United States
Cherokee Nation 1794–1907 Americas: North United States
Confederate States of America Confederation 1861–1865 Americas: North United States
Republic of Indian Stream Republic 1832–1835 Americas: North United States
State of Muskogee 1799–1803 Americas: North United States
Republic of Texas Republic 1836–1846 Americas: North United States
United States Washington, D.C. Republic 1776–present Americas: North United States
Republic of West Florida Republic 1810–1810 Americas: North United States
Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia Kingdom 1860–1862 Americas: South Argentina
Argentina 1861–present Americas: South Argentina
Buenos Aires 1852–1861 Americas: South Argentina
Argentine Confederation Confederation 1831–1861 Americas: South Argentina
United Provinces of the Río de la Plata 1810–1831 Americas: South Argentina
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata Territory, Spanish 1776–1810 Americas: South Argentina
Bolivia 1839–present Americas: South Bolivia
Republic of Acre Republic 1899-1900; 1903 Americas: South Brazil
First Brazilian Republic Republic 1889–1930 Americas: South Brazil
Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves Kingdom 1815–1822/1825 Americas: South Brazil
Captaincy General of Chile Territory, Spanish 1541–1818 Americas: South Chile
Chile Republic 1818–present Americas: South Chile
Republic of Colombia 1886–present Americas: South Colombia
United States of Colombia 1863–1886 Americas: South Colombia
Gran Colombia 1821–1831 Americas: South Colombia
Granadine Confederation Confederation 1858–1863 Americas: South Colombia
Republic of New Granada Republic 1831–1858 Americas: South Colombia
United Provinces of New Granada Republic 1810–1816 Americas: South Colombia
Viceroyalty of New Granada Territory, Spanish 1717–1819 Americas: South Colombia
Ecuador 1830–present Americas: South Ecuador
British Guiana Colony, British 1814–1966 Americas: South Guyana
Paraguay 1811–present Americas: South Paraguay
Peru 1839–present Americas: South Peru
Viceroyalty of Peru Territory, Spanish 1542–1824 Americas: South Peru
Peru–Bolivian Confederation Confederation 1836–1839 Americas: South Peru
Dutch Surinam Colony, Dutch 1667–1954 Americas: South Suriname
Liga Federal Federation 1815–1820 Americas: South Uruguay
Uruguay 1828–present Americas: South Uruguay
United States of Venezuela 1864–1953 Americas: South Venezuela
Kazakh Khanate Khanate 1456–1847 Asia: Central Kazakhstan
Khanate of Kokand Khanate 1709–1876 Asia: Central Uzbekistan 
Emirate of Bukhara Emirate 1747–1826 Asia: Central Uzbekistan 
Khanate of Khiva Khanate 1511–1920 Asia: Central Uzbekistan 
Qing dynasty Peking Monarchy 1644–1912 Asia: East China
Republic of Formosa Republic 1895 Asia: East Taiwan
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom 1851–1864 Asia: East China
Republic of Ezo Republic 1869 Asia: East Japan
Empire of Japan Empire 1868–1947 Asia: East Japan
Ryūkyū Kingdom Ryukyu Kingdom Kingdom 1429–1879 Asia: East Japan
Tokugawa shogunate Shogunate 1600–1868 Asia: East Japan
Joseon Hanseong Kingdom 1392–1897 Asia: East Korea
Korean Empire Hanseong Empire 1897–1910 Asia: East Korea
Emirate of Afghanistan: Barakzai dynasty Emirate 1823–1926; 1929 Asia: South Afghanistan
Durrani Empire Empire 1747–1826 Asia: South Afghanistan
Theocratic Bhutan Kingdom 1616–1907 Asia: South Bhutan
Bhutan Kingdom 1650–1905 Asia: South Bhutan
British India Colony, British 1858–1947 Asia: South India
Company rule in India Company rule 1757–1858 Asia: South India
Kharan Princely state (subsidiary alliance) 1697–1948 Asia: South India
Las Bela Princely state (subsidiary alliance) 1742–1948 Asia: South India
Makran Princely state (subsidiary alliance) 18th century–1948 Asia: South India
Manipur Princely state (subsidiary alliance) 1110–1949 Asia: South India
Alirajpur State Princely state (subsidiary alliance) 1437–1948 Asia: South India 
Alwar State Princely state (subsidiary alliance) 1296–1949 Asia: South India 
Athgarh Princely state (subsidiary alliance) 1178–1949 Asia: South India 
Kingdom of Cochin Various Kingdom 12th century–1947 Asia: South India 
Hyderabad State 1803–1948 Asia: South India 
Kashmir and Jammu Kingdom 1846-1953 Asia: South India 
Ahom kingdom Kingdom 1228–1826 Asia: South India 
Ajaigarh State 1765–1949 Asia: South India 
Alipura State 1757–1950 Asia: South India 
Garhwal Kingdom Various Kingdom 888–1949 Asia: South India 
Jaisalmer State Jaisalmer Principality 1156–1947 Asia: South India 
Mughal Empire Empire 1526–1540; 1555–1857 Asia: South India 
Sirmoor State Sirmür Principality 1095–1948 Asia: South India 
Maratha Empire Empire 1674–1820 Asia: South India 
Kingdom of Mysore Mysore, Srirangapatna Kingdom 1399–1947 Asia: South India 
Sikh Empire Flag.png Sikh Empire Empire 1799–1849 Asia: South India 
Kingdom of Sikkim Kingdom 1642–1975 Asia: South India 
Travancore 1729–1949 Asia: South India 
Huraa dynasty Monarchy 1757–1952; 1954–1968 Asia: South Maldives
Sultanate of the Maldives Sultanate 1117–1952; 1954–1968 Asia: South Maldives
Kingdom of Nepal Kathmandu Kingdom 1768–2008 Asia: South Nepal
British Ceylon Colony, British 1815–1948 Asia: South Sri Lanka
Bruneian Empire Various Empire 7th century–1888 Asia: Southeast Brunei
British rule in Burma Colony, British 1824–1942; 1945–1948 Asia: Southeast Burma
Konbaung dynasty Monarchy 1752–1885 Asia: Southeast Burma
Kingdom of Cambodia: Middle Period Kingdom early 15th century–1863 Asia: Southeast Cambodia
Dutch East Indies Colony, Dutch 1800–1942; 1945–1949 Asia: Southeast Indonesia 
Lanfang Republic Republic 1777–1884 Asia: Southeast Indonesia 
Aceh Sultanate Sultanate 1496–1903 Asia: Southeast Indonesia 
Banten Sultanate Sultanate 1527–1813 Asia: Southeast Indonesia 
Sultanate of Serdang Kingdom 1888–c.1890 Asia: Southeast Indonesia 
Kingdom of Champasak Kingdom 1713–1946 Asia: Southeast Laos
Federated Malay States 1895–1942; 1945–1946 Asia: Southeast Malaysia
Sultanate of Pahang Sultanate 1470–1896 Asia: Southeast Malaysia
Perak Sultanate: Siak dynasty Sultanate 1528–1896 Asia: Southeast Malaysia
Selangor Sultanate Sultanate 1745–1896 Asia: Southeast Malaysia
Sultanate of Maguindanao Sultanate 1500–1888 Asia: Southeast Philippines
Spanish East Indies, part of the Captaincy General of the Philippines Colony, Spanish 1565–1898 Asia: Southeast Philippines
Rattanakosin Kingdom of Siam Kingdom 1782–1932 Asia: Southeast Thailand
Annam (French protectorate) Protectorate, French 1884–1945; 1945–1949 Asia: Southeast Vietnam
Champa Indrapura, Vijaya, Panduranga Kingdom 192–1832 Asia: Southeast Vietnam
Cochinchina Colony, French 1862–1945; 1945–1949 Asia: Southeast Vietnam
Việt Nam: Nguyễn dynasty Empire (1802–1883), Protectorate (1884–1945) 1802–1945 Asia: Southeast Vietnam
Tây Sơn dynasty Kingdom 1778–1802 Asia: Southeast Vietnam
Tonkin 1884–1945; 1945–1949 Asia: Southeast Vietnam
North Borneo 1882–1941 Asia: Southeast Malaysia
Kingdom of Sarawak Kingdom 1841–1941; 1945–1946 Asia: Southeast Malaysia
Johor Sultanate Sultanate 1528–c.1949 Asia: Southeast Malaysia
Pattani kingdom Kingdom 1516–1902 Asia: Southeast Malaysia
Straits Settlements Territory, British 1826–1942; 1945–1946 Asia: Southeast Malaysia
Sultanate of Sulu Various Sultanate/client 1405–1915 Asia: Southeast Philippines
Emirate of Jabal Shammar Emirate 1836–1921 Asia: West Arabia
Soran Emirate Emirate 1530s–1835 Asia: West Iran
Sheikhdom of Kuwait Sheikhdom 1752–1961 Asia: West Kuwait
Muscat and Oman 1820–1970 Asia: West Oman
Imamate of Oman Imamate 751–1970 Asia: West Oman
Persia: Qajar dynasty Monarchy 1789–1925 Asia: West Persia
Emirate of Nejd Emirate 1812–1891 Asia: West Saudi Arabia
Emirate of Diriyah Emirate 1744–1818 Asia: West Saudi Arabia
Ottoman Empire Empire 1299–1923 Asia: West Turkey
Trucial States 1820–1971 Asia: West United Arab Emirates
Emirate of Beihan Emirate 17th century–1967 Asia: West Yeman
Emirate of Dhala Emirate 15th century–1967 Asia: West Yeman
Upper Aulaqi Sheikhdom Sheikhdom 18th century–1967 Asia: West Yeman
Upper Aulaqi Sultanate Sultanate 18th century–1967 Asia: West Yeman
Upper Yafa Sultanate c.1800–1967 Asia: West Yeman
Wahidi Balhaf c.1640–1967 Asia: West Yeman
Wahidi Haban c.1640–1967 Asia: West Yeman
Kingdom of Imereti Kingdom 1260–1810 Eurasia: Caucasus Georgia
Principality of Bulgaria Principality 1878–1908 Europe: Balkans Bulgaria
Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg) Kingdom 1527–1868 Europe: Balkans Croatia
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia Kingdom 1868–1918 Europe: Balkans Croatia
Republic of Ragusa Ragusa Republic 1358–1807 Europe: Balkans Croatia
Kingdom of Greece Various Kingdom 1832–1924; 1935–1941; 1944–1974 Europe: Balkans Greece
United States of the Ionian Islands 1815–1864 Europe: Balkans Greece
Septinsular Republic Republic 1800–1815 Europe: Balkans Greece
First Hellenic Republic Republic 1828–1832 Europe: Balkans Greece
Kosovo Vilayet 1877–1913 Europe: Balkans Kosovo
Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro Prince-Bishopric 1696–1852 Europe: Balkans Montenegro
Principality of Montenegro Principality 1852–1910 Europe: Balkans Montenegro
Kingdom of Serbia Kingdom 1882–1918 Europe: Balkans Serbia
Principality of Serbia Principality 1815–1882 Europe: Balkans Serbia
Illyrian Provinces Protectorate, French 1809–1816 Europe: Balkans Slovenia
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland London Kingdom 1801–1922 Europe: British Isles United Kingdom
Austria-Hungary Vienna, Budapest Monarchy 1867–1918 Europe: Central Austria
Archduchy of Austria Vienna Archduchy 1453–1806/1918 Europe: Central Austria
Habsburg monarchy Composite monarchy 1526–1804 Europe: Central Austria
Austrian Empire Vienna Empire 1804–1867 Europe: Central Austrian
Kingdom of Bohemia Kingdom 1198–1918 Europe: Central Czech Republic
German Confederation Confederation 1815–1866 Europe: Central Germany
German Empire Berlin Empire 1871–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Holy Roman Empire Hamburg Empire 962–1806 Europe: Central Germany
North German Confederation Confederation 1867–1871 Europe: Central Germany
Confederation of the Rhine Confederation 1806–1813 Europe: Central Germany
Duchy of Anhalt Duchy 1806–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Anhalt-Bernburg Monarchy 1252–1468; 1603–1863 Europe: Central Germany
Anhalt-Dessau Monarchy 1396–1561; 1603–1863 Europe: Central Germany
Anhalt-Köthen Monarchy 1396–1561; 1603–1853 Europe: Central Germany
Principality of Aschaffenburg Principality 1803–1810 Europe: Central Germany
Grand Duchy of Baden Grand Duchy 1806–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Kingdom of Bavaria Kingdom 1805–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Grand Duchy of Berg Grand Duchy 1806–1813 Europe: Central Germany
Bremen City-state republic 1806–1867 Europe: Central Germany
Duchy of Brunswick Braunschweig Duchy 1815–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Free City of Frankfurt City-state republic 1372–1806; 1816–1866 Europe: Central Germany
Grand Duchy of Frankfurt Client Grand Duchy 1810–1813 Europe: Central Germany
Free Imperial City of Hamburg City-state 1806–1867 Europe: Central Germany
Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg Electorate 1692–1807 Europe: Central Germany
Kingdom of Hanover Kingdom 1814–1866 Europe: Central Germany
Electorate of Hesse Monarchy 1803–1807; 1813–1866 Europe: Central Germany
Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine Grand Duchy 1806–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate 1567–1806 Europe: Central Germany
Hesse-Homburg Landgraviate 1622–1866 Europe: Central Germany
Hohenzollern-Hechingen Monarchy 1576–1850 Europe: Central Germany
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Monarchy 1576–1850 Europe: Central Germany
Duchy of Holstein Duchy 1474–1864 Europe: Central Germany
Principality of Leyen Client Principality 1806–1814 Europe: Central Germany
Principality of Lippe Principality 1123–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Free City of Lübeck City-state 1226–1811; 1815–1937 Europe: Central Germany
Electorate of Mainz Monarchy 780–1803 Europe: Central Germany
Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Duchy 1379–1815 Europe: Central Germany
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Grand Duchy 1815–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Duchy 1701–1815 Europe: Central Germany
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Grand Duchy 1815–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Duchy of Nassau Duchy 1806–1866 Europe: Central Germany
Grand Duchy of Oldenburg Grand Duchy 1814–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom 1701–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Prussia Kingdom 1525–1947 Europe: Central Germany
Principality of Regensburg Principality 1803–1810 Europe: Central Germany
Reuss c.1010–1778/1806 Europe: Central Germany
Reuss-Ebersdorf Monarchy 1678–1824 Europe: Central Germany
Principality of Reuss-Gera Principality 1806–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Principality of Reuss-Greiz Principality 1778–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Reuss-Lobenstein Monarchy 1425–1547; 1647–1824 Europe: Central Germany
Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg Duchy 1602–1672; 1826–1920 Europe: Central Germany
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Duchy 1826–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Duchy 1699–1825 Europe: Central Germany
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg Duchy 1680–1826 Europe: Central Germany
Saxe-Hildburghausen Duchy 1680–1826 Europe: Central Germany
Saxe-Lauenburg Duchy 1296–1803; 1814–1876 Europe: Central Germany
Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen Duchy 1680–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Grand Duchy 1809–1918 Europe: Central Germany
 Saxony Kingdom of Saxony Kingdom 1806–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe Principality 1643–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Principality 1599–1919 Europe: Central Germany
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Principality 1599–1920 Europe: Central Germany
Waldeck Principality 1180–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Kingdom of Westphalia Kingdom 1807–1813 Europe: Central Germany
Württemberg Monarchy 11th century–1918 Europe: Central Germany
Grand Duchy of Würzburg Grand Duchy 1805–1814 Europe: Central Germany
Kingdom of Hungary Various Kingdom 1000–1918 Europe: Central Hungary
Liechtenstein Principality 1806–present Europe: Central Liechtenstein
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Kingdom 1772–1918 Europe: Central Poland
Free City of Kraków City-state republic 1815–1846 Europe: Central Poland
Duchy of Warsaw Occupation 1807–1815 Europe: Central Poland
Helvetic Republic Republic 1798–1803 Europe: Central Switzerland
Switzerland of the Napoleonic era Confederation 1803–1815 Europe: Central Switzerland
Restoration and Regeneration in Switzerland 1815–1848 Europe: Central Switzerland
Switzerland 1848–present Europe: Central Switzerland
Principality of Moldavia Principality 1346–1859 Europe: East Romania
United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia Principalities 1859–1881 Europe: East Romania
Kingdom of Romania Kingdom 1881–1947 Europe: East Romania
Principality of Wallachia Principality 1330–1859 Europe: East Romania
Governorate of Estonia Province (Russia) 1721–1917 Europe: East, Baltic Estonia
Russian Empire Empire 1721–1917 Europe: East; Asia: Central Russia
Denmark Various Kingdom 1814–present Europe: Nordic Denmark
Denmark–Norway Kingdom 1524–1814 Europe: Nordic Denmark
Duchy of Schleswig Duchy 1058–1866 Europe: Nordic Denmark
Grand Duchy of Finland Grand Duchy 1809–1917 Europe: Nordic Finland
Kingdom of Norway (1814) Kingdom 1814 Europe: Nordic Norway
Gustavian era Sweden 1523–1814; 1905–present Europe: Nordic Sweden
Sweden–Norway Various Kingdom 1814–1905 Europe: Nordic Sweden
Cisalpine Republic Republic 1797–1802 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Republic of Cospaia Republic 1440–1826 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Sovereign Principality of Elba Principality 1814–1815 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Kingdom of Etruria Kingdom 1801–1807 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Republic of Genoa Republic 1005–1797; 1814–1815 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Italian Republic (Napoleonic) Republic/client 1802–1805 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic) Kingdom 1805–1814 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Kingdom of Italy Kingdom 1861–1946 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Ligurian Republic Republic 1797–1805 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia Kingdom 1815–1866 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Lucca Duchy 1815–1847 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Republic of Lucca Lucca Republic 1160–1805 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Duchy of Massa and Principality of Carrara Duchy 15th–19th century Europe: Southcentral Italy
Duchy of Modena and Reggio Duchy 1452–1796; 1814–1859 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Kingdom of Naples Kingdom 1285–1816 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily Kingdom 1043–1410; 1442–1500; 1735–1816 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Duchy of Parma Duchy 1545–1859 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Kingdom of Sardinia Cagliari, Turin Kingdom 1324–1861 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Kingdom of Trinacria: Sicily Various Kingdom 1130–1816 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Duchy of Tridentum Benevento Duchy/Principality 574–1802 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Grand Duchy of Tuscany Grand Duchy 1569–1801; 1815–1859 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Kingdom 1816–1861 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Gozo 1798–1801 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Roman Republic (19th century) Republic 1849 Europe: Southcentral Italy
Malta Protectorate Protectorate, British 1800–1813 Europe: Southcentral Malta
Crown Colony of Malta Colony, British 1813–1964 Europe: Southcentral Malta
Papal States Rome Pontificate 754–1870 Europe: Southcentral Papal
San Marino San Marino Republic AD 301–present Europe: Southcentral San Marino
Andorra Principality 1278–present Europe: Southwest Andorra
Kingdom of Portugal Various Kingdom 1139–1910 Europe: Southwest Portugal
Bourbon Spain Kingdom 1700–1812 Europe: Southwest Spain
First Spanish Republic Republic 1873–1874 Europe: Southwest Spain
Kingdom of Spain (1810–1873) Kingdom 1813–1873 Europe: Southwest Spain
Bourbon Restoration of Spain Toledo, Madrid Kingdom 1874–1931 Europe: Southwest Spain
Kingdom of Galicia Santiago de Compostela Kingdom 409–1833 Europe: Southwest Spain
Alsace-Lorraine German Colony 1871–1918 Europe: West France
Bourbon Restoration in France Paris 1814–1815; 1815–1830 Europe: West France
First French Empire Empire 1804–1814; 1815 Europe: West France
French First Republic Republic 1792–1804 Europe: West France
French Second Republic Republic 1848–1852 Europe: West France
July Monarchy Monarchy 1830–1848 Europe: West France
French Third Republic Republic 1870–1940 Europe: West France
Second French Empire Empire 1852–1870 Europe: West France
Roquebrune-Cap-Martin 1848–1860 Europe: West France
Monaco 1419–1793; 1814–present Europe: West Monaco
Belgium Brussels Kingdom 1830–present Europe: West, Low Countries Belgium
Luxembourg 1815–present Europe: West, Low Countries Luxembourg
Batavian Republic Republic 1795–1806 Europe: West, Low Countries Netherlands
Kingdom of Holland Kingdom 1806–1810 Europe: West, Low Countries Netherlands
Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands Principality 1813–1815 Europe: West, Low Countries Netherlands
United Kingdom of the Netherlands Kingdom 1815–1839 Europe: West, Low Countries Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands Kingdom 1839–present Europe: West, Low Countries Netherlands
Australia Colony, British 1788–1901 Oceania Australia
Kingdom of Bora Bora Kingdom Early 19th century–1895* Oceania Bora Bora
Cook Islands Federation Federation 1893–1901 Oceania Cook Islands
Portuguese Timor Colony, Portuguese 1702–1975 Oceania East Timor
Easter Island Kingdom 900–1878 Oceania Easter Island
Colony of Fiji Colony, British 1874–1970 Oceania Fiji
Kingdom of Fiji Kingdom 1871–1874 Oceania Fiji
Kingdom of Huahine Kingdom 1760–1895 Oceania French Polynesia
Kingdom of Mangareva Kingdom 18th century–1881 Oceania French Polynesia
Raiatea Monarchy 18th century–1888 Oceania French Polynesia
Gilbert and Ellice Islands British Colony 1892–1976 Oceania Kiribati
German New Guinea Colony, German 1884–1919 Oceania New Guinea
Kingdom of Rarotonga Kingdom 1858–1893 Oceania New Zealand
Colony of New Zealand Colony, British 1841–1907 Oceania New Zealand
Niuean monarchy Monarchy c. 1700–1900 Oceania Niue
British protectorate of Niue Protectorate, British 1900–1974 Oceania Niue
Territory of Papua Territory, British 1883–1949 Oceania Papua New Guinea
German Samoa Colony, German 1900–1920 Oceania Samoa
Malietoa dynasty (Samoa) Monarchy pre-1858–1900 Oceania Samoa
Tui Manua dynasty (Samoa) Monarchy up to 1900 Oceania Samoa
British Solomon Islands Colony, British 1893–1978 Oceania Solomon Islands
Kingdom of Tahiti Kingdom 1788–1880 Oceania Tahiti
Kingdom of Tonga (1900–1970) Protectorate 1900–1970 Oceania Tonga
Tonga Kingdom 1845–1900; 1970–present Oceania Tonga
Tuʻi Tonga Empire Empire 450s–1865 Oceania Tonga
Hawaiian Kingdom Kingdom 1795–1893 Oceania United States
Provisional Government of Hawaii Provisional Government 1893–1894 Oceania United States
Republic of Hawaii Republic 1894–1898 Oceania United States
Anglo-French Joint Naval Commission Colony, British/French 1887–1906 Oceania Vanuatu

See also[edit]

References[edit]

List of political entities in the 19th century
Preceded by Political entities
of the 19th century
Succeeded by