August

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2022
Depiction of harvesting in the August calendar page of the Queen Mary Psalter (fol. 78v), ca. 1310

August is the eighth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, and the fifth of seven months to have a length of 31 days.[1] Its zodiac sign is Leo and was originally named Sextilis in Latin because it was the 6th month in the original ten-month Roman calendar under Romulus in 753 BC, with March being the first month of the year. About 700 BC, it became the eighth month when January and February were added to the year before March by King Numa Pompilius, who also gave it 29 days. Julius Caesar added two days when he created the Julian calendar in 46 BC (708 AUC), giving it its modern length of 31 days. In 8 BC, it was renamed in honor of Emperor Augustus.[2] According to a Senatus consultum quoted by Macrobius, he chose this month because it was the time of several of his great triumphs, including the conquest of Egypt.[3] Commonly repeated lore has it that August has 31 days because Augustus wanted his month to match the length of Julius Caesar's July, but this is an invention of the 13th century scholar Johannes de Sacrobosco. Sextilis in fact had 31 days before it was renamed, and it was not chosen for its length.[4][5]

In the Southern Hemisphere, August is the seasonal equivalent of February in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Northern Hemisphere, August falls in the season of summer. In the Southern Hemisphere, the month falls during the season of winter. In many European countries, August is the holiday month for most workers. Numerous religious holidays occurred during August in ancient Rome.[6]

Certain meteor showers take place in August. The Kappa Cygnids take place in August, with the dates varying each year. The Alpha Capricornids meteor shower takes place as early as July 10 and ends at around August 10, and the Southern Delta Aquariids take place from mid-July to mid-August, with the peak usually around July 28–29. The Perseids, a major meteor shower, typically takes place between July 17 and August 24, with the days of the peak varying yearly. The star cluster of Messier 30 is best observed around August.

Among the aborigines of the Canary Islands, especially among the Guanches of Tenerife, the month of August received in the name of Beñesmer or Beñesmen, which was also the harvest festival held this month.[7][8]

August symbols[edit]

Observances[edit]

This list does not necessarily imply either official status or general observance.

Non-Gregorian observances: 2020 dates[edit]

(All Baha'i, Islamic, and Jewish observances begin at the sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown of the date in question unless otherwise noted.)

Month-long observances[edit]

United States month-long observances[edit]

Food Months in the United States[edit]

Moveable Gregorian observances[edit]

Second to last Sunday in July and the following two weeks[edit]

1st Saturday[edit]

1st Sunday[edit]

First Full week of August[edit]

1st Monday[edit]

1st Tuesday[edit]

1st Friday[edit]

2nd Saturday[edit]

Sunday on or closest to August 9[edit]

2nd Sunday[edit]

2nd Monday[edit]

2nd Tuesday[edit]

3rd Saturday[edit]

3rd Sunday[edit]

3rd Monday[edit]

3rd Friday[edit]

Last Thursday[edit]

Last Sunday[edit]

Last Monday[edit]

Fixed Gregorian observances[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "August." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 23 September 2008.
  2. ^ "Keeping Time: Months and the Modern Calendar | Live Science". Live Science. May 16, 2014.
  3. ^ "Year of Julius Caesar, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890), William Smith, LLD, William Wayte, G. E. Marindin, Ed".
  4. ^ Lamont, Roscoe (1919). "The Roman calendar and its reformation by Julius Caesar". Popular Astronomy. Vol. 27. pp. 583–595, esp. 585–587. Bibcode:1919PA.....27..579P. Sacrobosco's theory is discussed on pages 585–587.
  5. ^ Nothaft, C. Philipp E. (2018). Scandalous Error: Calendar Reform and Calendrical Astronomy in Medieval Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 122. doi:10.1093/oso/9780198799559.001.0001. ISBN 9780198799559.
  6. ^ Supplicia canum was held on August 3, Lychnapsia on August 12, Nemoralia was held from August 13–15 (or on the full moon of August), Tiberinalia and Portumnalia on August 17, Consuales Ludi on August 18, Vinalia rustica on August 19, Vulcanalia on August 23, Opiconsivia on August 25, and Volturnalia on August 27. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.
  7. ^ Abréu Galindo, Juan de (1848) [1632]. Historia de la conquista de las siete islas de Gran Canaria. Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Imprenta, Litografía y Librería Isleña.
  8. ^ Torriani, Leonardo (1959) [1590]. Descripción e historia del reino de las Islas Canarias: antes Afortunadas, con el parecer de sus fortificaciones. Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Goya Ediciones.
  9. ^ "Why the American Gem Society". American Gem Society.
  10. ^ Birth months, flowers, and gemstones, shgresources.com
  11. ^ The Earth passes the junction of the signs at 15:44 UT/GMT August 22, 2020, and will pass it again at 21:34 UT/GMT August 22, 2021.
  12. ^ "Astrology Calendar", yourzodiacsign. Signs in UT/GMT for 1950–2030.
  13. ^ "www.americanadventures.info".
  14. ^ "Children's Eye Health and Safety Month".
  15. ^ "Online Events".
  16. ^ "August is Get Ready for Kindergarten Month!". Committee for Economic Development of The Conference Board.
  17. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved 2015-07-29.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ "AANS".
  19. ^ "Psoriasis Awareness Month – Take Action, One Day at a Time – National Psoriasis Foundation".
  20. ^ "Cure SMA – Home".
  21. ^ "What Will Be Your Legacy Month".
  22. ^ "12th annual National Black Business Month". National Black Business Month.
  23. ^ "August is Vision & Learning Month – College of Optometrists in Vision Development (COVD)".
  24. ^ "National Immunization Awareness Month – NIAM – CDC".
  25. ^ "August Is Officially Princess Peach Month, According To Nintendo Of America".
  26. ^ "August is National Water Quality Month". GoodSpeaks.
  27. ^ "MHprofessional.com".
  28. ^ a b c d e "Food Days, Weeks, Months – August". UNL Food. University of Nebraska–Lincoln.
  29. ^ Bober, Mike. Celebrate National Goat Cheese Month with Local Favorites, dcfoodies.com
  30. ^ "Why Is National Panini Month In August?". Food Republic. August 20, 2012.
  31. ^ "National Science Week 2020".

Further reading[edit]