|1914 by topic|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2667|
|Balinese saka calendar||1835–1836|
|British Regnal year||4 Geo. 5 – 5 Geo. 5|
|Chinese calendar||癸丑年 (Water Ox)|
4610 or 4550
— to —
甲寅年 (Wood Tiger)
4611 or 4551
|- Vikram Samvat||1970–1971|
|- Shaka Samvat||1835–1836|
|- Kali Yuga||5014–5015|
|Japanese calendar||Taishō 3|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 13 days|
|Minguo calendar||ROC 3|
|Thai solar calendar||2456–2457|
2040 or 1659 or 887
— to —
2041 or 1660 or 888
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1914.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to 1914.|
1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1914th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 914th year of the 2nd millennium, the 14th year of the 20th century, and the 5th year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1914, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
This year saw the beginning of what became known as World War I, after Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austrian throne was assassinated by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip. It also saw the first airline to provide scheduled regular commercial passenger services with heavier-than-air aircraft, with the St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line.
- January 1 – The St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line in the United States starts services between St. Petersburg and Tampa, Florida, becoming the first airline to provide scheduled regular commercial passenger services with heavier-than-air aircraft, with Tony Jannus (the first federally-licensed pilot) conveying passengers in a Benoist XIV flying boat. Abram C. Pheil, mayor of St. Petersburg, is the first airline passenger, and over 3,000 people witness the first departure.
- January 11 – The Sakurajima volcano in Japan begins to erupt, becoming effusive after a very large earthquake on January 13. The lava flow causes the island which it forms to be linked to the Ōsumi Peninsula.
- January 11 – The Karluk, flagship of the Canadian Arctic Expedition, sank after being crushed by ice.
- February 8 – The Luxembourg national football team has its first victory, beating France 5–4 in a friendly match, for the first and only time in football history.
- February 12 – In Washington, D.C., the first stone of the Lincoln Memorial is put into place.
- February 13 – Copyright: In New York City, the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers is established, to protect the copyrighted musical compositions of its members.
- February 17 – Karl Staaff steps down as Prime Minister of Sweden, in the aftermath of the Courtyard Crisis. He is replaced by Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, father of Dag Hammarskjöld.
- February 26 – The ocean liner that will become HMHS Britannic, sister to the RMS Titanic, is launched at the Harland and Wolff shipyards in Belfast.
- February 28 – The Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus is proclaimed by ethnic Greeks, in Northern Epirus.
- March 7 – Prince William of Wied arrives in Albania, to begin his reign.
- March 10 – Suffragette Mary Richardson damages Velázquez's painting Rokeby Venus in London's National Gallery, with a meat chopper.
- March 17 (Saint Patrick's Day) – Green beer is invented by Dr. Thomas H. Curtin, and displayed at the Schnorrer Club of Morrisania in the Bronx, New York.
- March 20 – Film Tess of the Storm Country is released, propelling its star Mary Pickford to new levels of fame, marking the rise of the modern celebrity.
- March 27 – Belgian surgeon Albert Hustin makes the first successful non-direct blood transfusion, using anticoagulants.
- March 29 – Katherine Routledge and her husband arrive on Easter Island, to make the first true study of it (they depart in August 1915).
- April 4–September 27 – Komagata Maru incident: The SS Komagata Maru sails from India to Canada. Canadian regulations, designed to exclude Asian immigrants, prevent the boat from docking in Vancouver, and it is forced to return to Calcutta with all its passengers.
- April 9 – Tampico Affair: A misunderstanding involving United States Navy sailors in Mexico and army troops loyal to Mexican dictator Victoriano Huerta leads to a breakdown in diplomatic relations between the United States and Mexico.
- April 11 – Canadian Margaret C. MacDonald is appointed Matron-in-Chief of the Canadian Nursing service band, and becomes the first woman in the British Empire to reach the rank of major.
- April 14–18 – The first International Criminal Police Congress is held in Monaco; 24 countries are represented, including some from Asia, Europe, and the Americas; the Dean of the Paris Law School is president.
- April 20
- April 21 – United States occupation of Veracruz: 2,300 U.S. Navy sailors and Marines from the South Atlantic fleet land in the port city of Veracruz, Mexico, which they will occupy for over six months. The Ypiranga incident occurs when they attempt to enforce an arms embargo against Mexico, by preventing the German cargo steamer SS Ypiranga from unloading arms for the Mexican government in the port.
- April 22 – Mexico ends diplomatic relations with the United States for the time being.
- April 23 – The Afrikaans language receives official recognition, when Cornelis Jacobus Langenhoven addresses the English caucus of the Cape Provincial Council.
- May 1 – November 1 – The Exposition Internationale is held at Lyon, France.
- May 5 – November 11 – The Jubilee Exhibition (Jubilæumsutstillingen) is held at Kristiania, Norway, to mark the centennial of the country's Constitution.
- May 9 – J. T. Hearne becomes the first bowler to take 3,000 first-class wickets.
- May 14 – Woodrow Wilson signs a Mother's Day proclamation.
- May 17 – The Protocol of Corfu provides for the provinces of Korçë and Gjirokastër, constituting Northern Epirus, to be granted autonomy under the nominal sovereignty of Albania.
- May 25 – In the U.K., the House of Commons passes the Irish Home Rule Bill.
- May 29 – The ocean liner RMS Empress of Ireland sinks in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; 1,012 lives are lost.
- May 30 – The ocean liner RMS Aquitania makes her maiden voyage.
- c. June – Blaise Diagne of Senegal becomes the first Black African representative in the French Parliament.
- June 1 – Woodrow Wilson's envoy, Edward Mandell House, meets with Kaiser Wilhelm II.
- June 8 – The Brazilian Football Confederation is founded, with Álvaro Zamith as its first president. The Brazilian Olympic Committee is founded on the same day.
- June 9 – Pittsburgh Pirate Honus Wagner becomes the first baseball player in the twentieth century with 3,000 career hits.
- June 12 – Greek genocide: Ottoman Greeks in Phocaea are massacred by Turkish irregular troops.
- June 18 – Mexican Revolution: The Constitutionals take San Luis Potosí; Venustiano Carranza demands Victoriano Huerta's surrender.
- June 23 – After it had been closed so that it could be deepened, the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal is reopened by the Kaiser; the British Fleet under Sir George Warrender visits; the Kaiser inspects the Dreadnought HMS King George V.
- June 24 – In Manchester, New Hampshire, a downtown fire causes $400,000 worth of damage and injures 19 firemen.
- June 28 – Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria: Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip, 19, assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Duchess Sophie, in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, triggering the July Crisis and World War I. Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo and Zagreb break out.
- June 29
- The Secretary of the Austro-Hungarian Legation at Belgrade sends a dispatch to Vienna, suggesting Serbian complicity in the crime of Sarajevo. Anti-Serb riots continue throughout Bosnia.
- Khioniya Guseva attempts and fails to assassinate Grigori Rasputin at his hometown in Siberia.
- The International Exhibition opens at the "White City", Ashton Gate, Bristol, England, U.K. It closes on August 15, and the site is used as a military depot.
- June 30 – Among those addressing the Parliament of the United Kingdom, on the murdered Archduke, are Lords Crewe and Lansdowne in the House of Lords, and Messrs Asquith and Law in the Commons.
- July 1 – The Royal Naval Air Service, a forerunner of the Royal Air Force, is established.
- July 2 – The German Kaiser announces that he will not attend the Archduke's funeral.
- July 4
- July 5 – A council is held at Potsdam, powerful leaders within Austria-Hungary and Germany meet to discuss the possibilities of war with Serbia, Russia, and France.
- July 7 – Austria-Hungary convenes a Council of Ministers, including Ministers for Foreign Affairs and War, the Chief of the General Staff and Naval Commander-in-Chief; the Council lasts from 11:30 am until 6:15 pm.
- July 9 – The Emperor of Austria-Hungary receives the report of the Austro-Hungarian investigation, into the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria at Sarajevo. The Times publishes an account of the Austro-Hungarian press campaign against the Serbians (who are described as "pestilent rats").
- July 10 – Nicholas Hartwig, Russian Minister to Serbia, dies of a heart attack while visiting Austrian minister Wladimir Giesl von Gieslingen, at the Austrian Legation in Belgrade.
- July 11
- Baseball legend Babe Ruth makes his major league debut, with the Boston Red Sox.
- USS Nevada, the United States Navy's first "super-dreadnought" battleship, is launched.
- Over 5,000 people attend a rally in Union Square, Manhattan, called by the Anti-Militarist League to commemorate the anarchists killed in the July 4th Lexington Avenue bombing.
- July 13 – Reports surface of a projected Serbian attack upon the Austro-Hungarian Legation at Belgrade.
- July 14 – The Government of Ireland Bill completes its passage through the House of Lords in the U.K. It allows Ulster counties to vote on whether or not they wish to participate in Home Rule from Dublin.
- July 15 – Mexican Revolution: Victoriano Huerta resigns from the presidency of Mexico, and leaves for Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz.
- July 18
- The Signal Corps of the United States Army establishes an Aviation Section, giving definite status to its air service for the first time.
- The British Fleet is reviewed at Spithead, by George V.
- Mahatma Gandhi leaves South Africa for the last time, sailing out of Cape Town for England, on board the S.S. Kinfauns Castle.
- July 19 – George V summons a conference to discuss the Irish Home Rule problem. It meets from July 21–24, without reaching consensus.
- July 23 – July Ultimatum: Austria-Hungary presents Serbia with an unconditional ultimatum.
- July 25 – Austria-Hungary severs diplomatic ties with Serbia, and begins to mobilise its own forces. Radomir Putnik, Chief of the Serbian General Staff, is arrested in Budapest, but subsequently allowed to return to Serbia.
- July 26 – Bachelor's Walk massacre: The King's Own Scottish Borderers of the British Army fire on Dubliners at Bachelor's Walk, killing three people and injuring a further 38.
- July 27 – Felix Ysagun Manalo registers the Iglesia ni Cristo (Church of Christ) with the government of the Philippines.
- July 28
- July 28–August 10 – World War I: Pursuit of Goeben and Breslau: British and French naval forces fail to prevent the ships of the Imperial German Navy Mediterranean Division from reaching the Dardanelles.
- July 29
- World War I: Austro-Hungarian Navy river monitor SMS Bodrog fires the first shots of the war, opening the bombardment of the defences of Belgrade, Serbia's capital.
- In Massachusetts, the new Cape Cod Canal opens; it shortens the trip between New York and Boston by 66 miles, but also turns Cape Cod into an island.
- July 31 – Russia orders full mobilisation.
- August 1
- The German Empire declares war on the Russian Empire, following Russia's military mobilization in support of Serbia; Germany also begins mobilisation.
- France orders general mobilisation.
- The New York Stock Exchange is closed because of the outbreak of war in Europe, where nearly all stock exchanges were already closed.
- Marcus Garvey founds the Universal Negro Improvement Association in Jamaica.
- August 2
- August 3
- Germany declares war on Russia's ally, France.
- At 7:00 am (local time) Belgium declines to accept Germany's ultimatum of August 2.
- August 4
- German troops invade Belgium at 8:02 am (local time). In London the King declares war on Germany, for this violation of Belgian neutrality and especially to defend France. This means a declaration of war by the whole British Empire against Germany. The United States declares neutrality.
- Imperial German Navy Rear-Admiral Wilhelm Souchon bombards the French Algerian ports of Bône and Philippeville from battlecruiser Goeben and light cruiser Breslau.
- August 5
- Germany declares war on Belgium.
- The Kingdom of Montenegro declares war on Austria-Hungary.
- The guns of Point Nepean fort at Port Phillip Heads in Victoria (Australia) fire across the bows of the Norddeutscher Lloyd steamer SS Pfalz, which is attempting to leave the Port of Melbourne in ignorance of the declaration of war, and she is detained; this is said to be the first Allied shot of the war.
- SS Königin Luise, taken over two days earlier by the Imperial German Navy as a minelayer, lays mines 40 miles (64 km) off the east coast of England. She is intercepted and sunk by the British Royal Navy light cruiser HMS Amphion, the first German naval loss of the war. The following day, Amphion strikes mines laid by the Königin Luise and is sunk with some loss of life, in the first British casualties of the war.
- German zeppelins drop bombs on Liège, Belgium, killing 9 civilians.
- The first electric traffic light is installed between Euclid Avenue and East 105 Street, in Cleveland, Ohio.
- August 5–16 – Battle of Liège: The German Army overruns and defeats the Belgians with the first operational use of Big Bertha.
- August 6 – World War I:
- August 7 – World War I:
- Battle of Mulhouse: France launches its first attack of the war, in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to recover the province of Alsace from Germany, beginning the Battle of the Frontiers.
- British colonial troops of the British Gold Coast Regiment, entering the German West African colony of Togoland, encounter the German-led police force at a factory in Nuatja, near Lomé, and the police open fire on the patrol. Alhaji Grunshi returns fire, the first soldier in British service to fire a shot in the war.
- August 8
- August 9 – World War I: British Royal Navy light cruiser HMS Birmingham rams and sinks German submarine U-15 off Fair Isle, the first U-boat lost in action.
- August 12 – World War I:
- August 13 – The Teoloyucan Treaties are signed in the State of Mexico.
- August 15
- August 15–24 – World War I: Battle of Cer: Serbian troops defeat the Austro-Hungarian army, marking the first Entente victory of the War.
- August 16 – World War I:
- German warships SMS Goeben and Breslau (both commissioned in 1912), which reached Constantinople on August 10, are transferred to the Ottoman Navy, Goeben becoming its flagship, Yavuz Sultan Selim.
- Lake Nyasa is the scene of a brief naval battle, when Captain Edmund Rhoades, commander of the British steamship SS Gwendolen, hears that war has broken out, and he receives orders from the British high command to "sink, burn, or destroy" the German Empire's only ship on the lake, the Hermann von Wissmann, commanded by a Captain Berndt. Rhoades's crew finds the Hermann von Wissmann in a bay near "Sphinxhaven", in German East African territorial waters. Gwendolen disables the German vessel with a single cannon shot from a range of about 1,800 metres (2,000 yards). This very brief engagement is hailed by The Times in England, as the British Empire's first naval victory of World War I.
- August 17–September 2 – World War I: The Battle of Tannenberg begins between German and Russian forces.
- August 20 – World War I:
- August 22 – World War I – Battle of Rossignol: German forces decisively defeat the French.
- August 23 – World War I:
- August 26 – World War I:
- August 26–27 – Battle of Le Cateau: British, French and Belgian forces make a successful tactical retreat from the German advance.
- August 26–30 – Battle of Tannenberg: The Russian Second Army is surrounded and defeated.
- August 28 – Battle of Heligoland Bight: British cruisers under Admiral Beatty sink three German cruisers.
- August 29–30 – The Battle of St. Quentin: French forces hold back the German advance.
- September 1
- September 2 – World War I: The French village of Moronvilliers is occupied by the Germans.
- September 3
- September 5 – World War I:
- London Agreement: No member of the Triple Entente (Britain, France, or Russia) may seek a separate peace with the Central Powers.
- The First Battle of the Marne begins: Situated north-east of Paris, the French 6th Army under General Maunoury attacks German forces near Paris. Over 2,000,000 fight (500,000 are killed/wounded) in the Allied victory. A French and British counterattack at the Marne ends the German advance on Paris.
- British Royal Navy scout cruiser HMS Pathfinder is sunk by German submarine U-21 in the Firth of Forth (Scotland), the first ship ever to be sunk by a locomotive torpedo fired from a submarine.
- September 6–8 – French Army troops are rushed from Paris to join the First Battle of the Marne using Renault Type AG taxicabs.
- September 7 – World War I: Turkey declares war on Belgium.
- September 10 – World War I: South Africa declares war on Germany.
- September 11 – World War I:
- The Battle of Rawa ends in the defeat of Austro-Hungarian forces by the Russians.
- First Battle of the Masurian Lakes: A German offensive pushes the Russian First Army back across its entire front.
- Battle of Bita Paka: The Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force lands on German New Guinea and secures a strategically significant wireless station, the first major Australian military engagement of the War.
- September 13 – World War I:
- September 14 – Royal Australian Navy submarine HMAS AE1 vanishes while on combat patrol near Papua New Guinea, beginning one of Australia's longest naval mysteries; the sunken vessel will not be discovered for another 103 years.
- September 15 – The Maritz Rebellion of disaffected Boers against the government of the Union of South Africa begins. General Koos de la Rey, a Boer general associated with the leaders of the rebellion, is shot dead after his driver fails to stop at a police roadblock.
- September 17
- September 21 – World War I: British Imperial police forces capture Schuckmannsburg, in the Caprivi Strip of German South-West Africa.
- September 22 – World War I:
- Action of 22 September 1914: German submarine U-9 torpedoes three British Royal Navy armoured cruisers, HMS Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue, with the death of more than 1,400 men, in the North Sea.
- Bombardment of Papeete: German naval forces bombard Papeete, French Polynesia.
- German light cruiser SMS Emden bombards Madras, the only Indian city to be attacked by the Central Powers in the War.
- September 25 – World War I: The first Battle of Albert begins as part of the Race to the Sea.
- September 26 – The United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is established, by the Federal Trade Commission Act.
- September 28 – World War I: The First Battle of the Aisne ends indecisively.
- September 30
- October 3 – World War I: 25,000 Canadian troops depart for Europe.
- October 4
- October 9 – World War I: Siege of Antwerp: Antwerp (Belgium) falls to German troops.
- October 14 – World War I: The Canadian Expeditionary Force arrives on 32 ocean liners, in Plymouth Sound.
- October 16–31– World War I: Battle of the Yser: The Belgian army halts the German advance, but with heavy losses.
- October 19 – World War I:
- October 27 – World War I:
- October 28 – World War I:
- Battle of Penang, Malaya: German cruiser Emden sinks a Russian cruiser and French destroyer, before escaping.
- Participants in the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria are sentenced at Sarajevo. Gavrilo Princip, being under 20 years of age at the time of the assassination, cannot be given the death penalty, and is given a 20-year prison sentence instead.
- October 29 – World War I: Ottoman warships shell Russian Black Sea ports; Russia, France, and Britain declare war on November 1–November 5.
- October 31 – World War I: Battle of the Vistula River concludes in a Russian victory over German and Austro-Hungarian forces around Warsaw.
- November 1 – World War I: Battle of Coronel – A British Royal Navy squadron commanded by Rear-Admiral Sir Christopher Cradock is met in the eastern Pacific and defeated by superior German forces led by Vice-Admiral Maximilian von Spee in the first British naval defeat of the war, resulting in the loss of HMS Good Hope and HMS Monmouth.
- November 5 – World War I:
- Britain and France declare war on Turkey. The United Kingdom annexes Cyprus, which it controls until Cyprus' declaration of independence in 1960.
- The Battle of Tanga ends, with the British Indian Expeditionary Force B failing to capture German East Africa defences.
- Alpha Phi Delta is founded as a Greek social fraternity at Syracuse University in the United States.
- November 7 – Siege of Tsingtao: The Japanese and British seize Jiaozhou Bay in China, the base of the German East Asia Squadron.
- November 9 – World War I: Battle of Cocos – The German cruiser Emden, the last active warship of the Central Powers in the Indian Ocean, is sunk by the Australian cruiser Sydney.
- November 13 – Zaian War: Battle of El Herri – Zayanes (Berbers) in Morocco overpower French forces.
- November 14 – The Joensuu Town Hall, designed by Eliel Saarinen, was inaugurated in Joensuu, Finland.
- November 16 – A year after being created by passage of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, the Federal Reserve Bank of the United States officially opens for business.
- November 21 – In New Haven, Connecticut, the new Yale Bowl officially opens; Harvard defeats Yale 36–0 in the first American football game held here.
- November 23 – Mexican Revolution: The last of U.S. forces withdraw from Veracruz, occupied seven months earlier in response to the Tampico Affair; Venustiano Carranza's troops take over, and Carranza makes the town his headquarters.
- November 24 – Benito Mussolini is expelled from the Italian Socialist Party.
- November 28 – World War I: Following a war-induced closure in July, the New York Stock Exchange re-opens for bond trading.
- December 2 – Serbian Campaign (World War I): Austro-Hungarian forces occupy Belgrade, Serbia.
- December 5 – The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition began in an attempt to make the first land crossing of Antarctica.
- December 8 – World War I: Battle of the Falkland Islands: A superior British Royal Navy squadron under Doveton Sturdee defeats ships of the Imperial German Navy under Maximilian von Spee.
- December 12 – The New York Stock Exchange re-opens, having been closed since August 1, except for bond trading.
- December 15 – A gas explosion at the Mitsubishi Hōjō mine disaster, Kyūshū, Japan, kills 687 people (the worst coal mine disaster in Japanese history).
- December 16 – World War I: Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby: Imperial German Navy battlecruisers attack British North Sea ports, resulting in 137 deaths.
- December 17 – United States President Woodrow Wilson signs the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act (initially introduced by Francis Burton Harrison). This begins the ongoing international War on Drugs.
- December 18 – Egypt becomes a British protectorate.
- December 19
- December 20 – Tokyo Station, officially opens, and changes from railway base station from Shinbashi Station in Japan.[page needed]
- December 24 – World War I: An unofficial, temporary Christmas truce begins, between British and German soldiers on the Western Front.
- December 25 – World War I: Cuxhaven Raid: British aircraft launched from warships attack the German port of Cuxhaven with submarine support, although little damage is caused.
- The capital of the Guangxi Province of China is moved from Guilin to Nanning.
- Oxymorphone, a powerful narcotic analgesic closely related to morphine, is first developed in Germany.
- The first everyday items made of stainless steel come into public circulation.
- The Port of Orange, Texas, is dredged for the fabrication of vessels for the United States Navy.
- Phi Sigma, a local undergraduate classical club, is founded by a group of students in the Greek Department at the University of Chicago.
- Fashion and perfumes company Puig is founded in Barcelona.
- Woodman's of Essex, the famous family-owned clam shack on Boston's North Shore, is opened.
|January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December|
- January 1 – Noor Inayat Khan (aka Nora Baker), World War II heroine (executed 1944)
- January 4 – Jean-Pierre Vernant, French historian and anthropologist (d. 2007)
- January 5 – George Reeves, American actor (Superman) (d. 1959)
- January 9 – Kenny Clarke, American jazz drummer and bandleader (d. 1985)
- January 10 – Yu Kuo-hwa, Chinese politician, 23rd Premier of the Republic of China (d. 2000)
- January 14
- January 15 – Hugh Trevor-Roper, English historian (d. 2003)
- January 18 – Arno Schmidt, German author (d. 1979)
- January 26 – Princess Hadice Hayriye Ayshe Dürrühsehvar (d. 2006)
- January 30 – John Ireland, Canadian-born actor (d. 1992)
- January 31 – Jersey Joe Walcott, American boxer (d. 1994)
- February 3
- February 4 – Alfred Andersch, German writer (d. 1980)
- February 5
- February 6
- February 10 – Larry Adler, American musician (d. 2001)
- February 12 – Lazar Koliševski, Yugoslav communist political leader (d. 2000)
- February 15 – Kevin McCarthy, American actor (d. 2010)
- February 17 – Arthur Kennedy, American actor (d. 1990)
- February 18 – Mahmoud Zulfikar, Egyptian film director (d. 1970)
- February 19 – Jacques Dufilho, French comedian, actor (d. 2005)
- February 22 – Renato Dulbecco, Italian-born virologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2012)
- February 23 – Theofiel Middelkamp, Dutch cyclist (d. 2005)
- February 26 – Robert Alda, American-born actor, father of actor Alan Alda (d. 1986)
- March 1 – Ralph Ellison, American writer (d. 1994)
- March 2
- March 3
- March 4 – Ward Kimball, American cartoonist (d. 2002)
- March 6 – Kiril Kondrashin, Russian conductor (d. 1981)
- March 8 – Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich, Russian physicist (d. 1987)
- March 13 – Saroj Dutta, Indian communist leader (d. 1971)
- March 17 – Juan Carlos Onganía, 35th President of Argentina (d. 1995)
- March 19 – Jiang Qing, Chinese politician (d. 1991)
- March 21 – Paul Tortelier, French cellist and composer (d. 1990)
- March 23 – Wendell Smith, African American sportswriter (d. 1972)
- March 25 – Norman Borlaug, American agricultural scientist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 2009)
- March 26 – William Westmoreland, American Vietnam War general (d. 2005)
- March 28 – Edmund Muskie, American politician (d. 1996)
- March 30 – Sonny Boy Williamson I, American musician (d. 1948)
- March 31 – Octavio Paz, Mexican diplomat, writer, and Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
- April 2
- April 3 – Sam Manekshaw, Field Marshal of the Indian Army (d. 2008)
- April 4
- April 8 – María Félix, Mexican actress (d. April 8, 2002)
- April 11
- April 12
- April 13 – Orhan Veli, Turkish poet (d. 1950)
- April 18 – Claire Martin, Canadian author (d. 2014)
- April 22
- April 24 – Jan Karski, Polish World War II resistance movement fighter (d. 2000)
- April 25 – Marcos Pérez Jiménez, 51st President of Venezuela (d. 2001)
- April 26
- April 30 – Dorival Caymmi, Brazilian songwriter (d. 2008)
- May 5 – Tyrone Power, American actor (d. 1958)
- May 7 – Ye Fei, Filipino-Chinese general and politician (d. 1999)
- May 8 – Romain Gary, Russian-born writer, diplomat (d. 1980)
- May 9
- May 12 – Bertus Aafjes, Dutch poet (d. 1993)
- May 13 – Joe Louis, African-American boxer (d. 1981)
- May 14
- May 16 – Edward T. Hall, American anthropologist (d. 2009)
- May 18
- May 19
- May 20 – Avraham Shapira, head of the Rabbinical court of Jerusalem and the Supreme Rabbinic Court; rosh yeshiva of Mercaz HaRav (d. 2007)
- May 22
- May 24
- May 26 – Irmã Dulce Pontes, Brazilian Catholic Franciscan Sister (d. 1992)
- May 31 – Akira Ifukube, Japanese classical music, film composer (d. 2006)
- June 6 – Zhang Jingfu, Chinese politician (d. 2015)
- June 10 – Joseph DePietro, American weightlifter (d. 1999)
- June 12 – Go Seigen, Japanese Go player (d. 2014)
- June 14
- June 15
- June 18 – E. G. Marshall, American actor (d. 1998)
- June 20 – Muazzez İlmiye Çığ, Turkish archaeologist
- June 21 – William Vickrey, Canadian economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1996)
- June 22 – Mei Zhi, Chinese children's author, essayist (d. 2004)
- June 23 – Juán Landolfi, Argentine-Italian football player
- June 25 – Luz Magsaysay, 7th First Lady of the Philippines (d. 2004)
- June 26
- June 27 – Margaret Ekpo, Nigerian women's rights activist, social mobilizer and politician (d. 2006)
- June 29 – Rafael Kubelík, Czech-born conductor (d. 1996)
- June 30 – Francisco da Costa Gomes, 15th President of Portugal (d. 2001)
- July 1 – Christl Cranz, German alpine skier (d. 2004)
- July 2 – Erich Topp, German commander (d. 2005)
- July 5 – Yitzhak Rafael, Israeli politician (d. 1999)
- July 6
- July 8
- July 9 – Willi Stoph, Prime Minister (1964-1973, 1976-1989) and Chairman of the Council of State (1973-1976) of the GDR (d. 1999)
- July 10
- July 11
- July 13
- July 15
- July 16 – Herbert Nürnberg, German boxer (d. 1995)
- July 17 – Klári Tolnay, Hungarian actress (d. 1998)
- July 18
- July 19
- July 20
- July 21
- July 22 – Charles Régnier, German actor, director, radio actor and translator (d. 2001)
- July 24
- July 27 – Gusti Huber, Austrian actress (d. 1993)
- July 30 – Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin, Irish president of the International Olympic Committee (d. 1999)
- July 31 – Louis de Funès, French comedy actor (d. 1983)
- August 2 – Beatrice Straight, American actress (d. 2001)
- August 8 – Yabing Masalon Dulo, Filipino textile master weaver and dyer (d. 2021)
- August 9
- August 10 – Ken Annakin, British film director (d. 2009)
- August 15 – Paul Rand, American graphic designer (d. 1996)
- August 17 – Gabrielle Weidner, Belgian World War II heroine (d. 1945)
- August 19
- August 26 – Julio Cortázar, Argentine writer (d. 1984)
- August 30 – Julie Bishop, American actress (d. 2001)
- September 1 – Tsuneko Sasamoto, Japanese photographer
- September 5
- September 7 – James Van Allen, American physicist (d. 2006)
- September 10
- September 11 – Serbian Patriarch Pavle, (d. 2009)
- September 12
- September 14 – Clayton Moore, American actor (The Lone Ranger) (d. 1999)
- September 15
- September 17 – Lambert Mascarenhas, Indian journalist (d. 2021)
- September 18
- September 20 – Kenneth More, English actor (d. 1982)
- September 23 – Omar Ali Saifuddien III, Sultan of Brunei (d. 1986)
- September 24 – John Kerr, 18th Governor-General of Australia (d. 1991)
- September 25 – Elena Lucena, Argentine film actress (d. 2015)
- September 26 – Jack LaLanne, American fitness, exercise and nutritional expert (d. 2011)
- September 27 – Sophie Sooäär, Estonian actress and singer (d. 1996)
- October 1 – Daniel J. Boorstin, American historian, writer, and Librarian of Congress (d. 2004)
- October 6 – Thor Heyerdahl, Norwegian explorer (d. 2002)
- October 7 – Begum Akhtar, Indian singer (d. 1974)
- October 9 – Guy Charmot, French resistance fighter and doctor (d. 2019)
- October 10 – Agostino Straulino, Italian sailor and sailboat racer (d. 2004)
- October 14 – Raymond Davis Jr., American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2006)
- October 15 – Mohammed Zahir Shah, King of Afghanistan (d. 2007)
- October 17 – Jerry Siegel, American comic book author (d. 1996)
- October 19 – Juanita Moore, African-American actress (d. 2014)
- October 20 – James C. Floyd, Canadian aerospace engineer
- October 21 – Martin Gardner, American writer (d. 2010)
- October 24 – František Čapek, Czechoslovakian canoeist (d. 2008)
- October 25 – John Berryman, American poet (d. 1972)
- October 26 – Jackie Coogan, American actor (d. 1984)
- October 27 – Dylan Thomas, Welsh poet and author (d. 1953)
- October 28
- October 30 – Leabua Jonathan, 2nd Prime Minister of Lesotho (d. 1987)
- November 1 – Moshe Teitelbaum, Hassidic rabbi (d. 2006)
- November 2 – Ray Walston, American actor (d. 2001)
- November 8
- November 9 – Hedy Lamarr, Austrian actress (d. 2000)
- November 11
- November 13
- November 18 – William Phillips, New Zealand economist (d. 1974)
- November 21 – Abd al-Karim Qasim, Iraqi general, 24th Prime Minister of Iraq (d. 1963)
- November 25 – Joe DiMaggio, American baseball player (d. 1999)
- December 9 – Frances Reid, American actress (d. 2010)
- December 10 – Dorothy Lamour, American actress and singer (d. 1996)
- December 11 – Gabriel Chiramel, Indian priest, zoologist and author (d. 2017)
- December 12 – Patrick O'Brian, British novelist (d. 2000)
- December 13 – Larry Parks, American actor (d. 1975)
- December 14
- December 15 – Anatole Abragam, French physicist (d. 2011)
- December 21 – Frank Fenner, Australian virologist and microbiologist (d. 2010)
- December 24 – Zoya Bulgakova, Russian Soviet stage actress (d. 2017)
- December 26 – Richard Widmark, American actor (d. 2008)
- December 28 – Bidia Dandaron, Buddhist author and teacher in the USSR (d. 1974)
|January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December|
- January 8 – Simon Bolivar Buckner, American soldier and politician, 30th governor of Kentucky (b. 1823)
- January 10 – Leonie Aviat, French Roman Catholic religious sister and saint (b. 1844)
- January 11 – Carl Jacobsen, Danish brewer and patron of the arts (b. 1842)
- January 15 – Camilo Garcia de Polavieja, Spanish general (b. 1838)
- January 16 – Itō Sukeyuki, Japanese admiral (b. 1843)
- January 17 – Fernand Foureau, French explorer (b. 1850)
- January 19
- January 26 – Jose Gabriel del Rosario Brochero, Argentine Roman Catholic priest and saint (b. 1840)
- February 1 – Albert Günther, German-born British zoologist (b. 1830)
- February 4 – Per Pålsson, Swedish criminal (b. 1828)
- February 13 – Alphonse Bertillon, French police officer and forensic scientist (b. 1853)
- February 20 – Federico Degetau, Puerto Rican politician (b. 1862)
- February 24 – Joshua Chamberlain, American Civil War general (b. 1828)
- February 25 – Sir John Tenniel, English illustrator (b. 1820)
- March 1
- March 9 – José Luciano de Castro, Portuguese politician, 3-time Prime Minister of Portugal (b. 1834)
- March 12 – George Westinghouse, American entrepreneur (b. 1846)
- March 13
- March 16
- March 18 – Andreas Beck, Norwegian explorer (b. 1864)
- March 19 – Giuseppe Mercalli, Italian volcanologist (b. 1850)
- March 22 – Allen Caperton Braxton, American lawyer (b. 1862)
- March 23 – Rafqa Pietra Choboq Ar-Rayès, Lebanese Maronite, Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic nun and saint (b. 1832)
- March 25 – Frédéric Mistral, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1830)
- March 31 – Christian Morgenstern, German poet and writer (b. 1871)
- April 1 – Rube Waddell, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1876)
- April 2 – Paul Heyse, German writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1830)
- April 7
- April 11 – Elena Guerra, Italian Roman Catholic religious professed and blessed (b. 1835)
- April 15 – Count Frederick of Hohenau (b. 1857)
- April 16
- April 19
- April 24 – Benedict Menni, Italian Roman Catholic priest and saint (b. 1841)
- April 25 – Géza Fejérváry, 16th Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1833)
- April 26 – Eduard Suess, Austrian geologist (b. 1831)
- April 28 – Philippe Édouard Léon Van Tieghem, French botanist (b. 1839)
- May 2 – John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll, husband of Princess Louise of the United Kingdom (b. 1845)
- May 3 – Élisabeth Leseur, French Roman Catholic mystic and servant of God (b. 1866)
- May 8 – Seth Edulji Dinshaw, Indian Parsi philanthropist (b. 1842)
- May 9 – C. W. Post, American cereal manufacturer (b. 1854)
- May 10 – Lillian Nordica, American opera singer (b. 1857)
- May 12 – Eugenio Montero Ríos, 29th Prime Minister of Spain (b. 1832)
- May 15 – Ida Freund, Austrian-born British chemist and educator (b. 1863)
- May 23 – William O'Connell Bradley, American politician from Kentucky (b. 1847)
- May 26 – Jacob Riis, Danish-American social reformer (b. 1849)
- May 27 – Sir Joseph Swan, British scientist (b. 1828)
- May 29 – Joseph Gérard, French Roman Catholic priest and blessed (b. 1831)
- June 10 – Abraam, Egyptian Coptic Orthodox bishop and saint (b. 1829)
- June 11 – Adolf Friedrich V, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (b. 1848)
- June 14 – Adlai E. Stevenson I, 23rd Vice President of the United States (b. 1835)
- June 15 – John Robert Sitlington Sterrett, American classical scholar and archeologist (b. 1851)
- June 19 – Brandon Thomas, British actor and playwright (Charley's Aunt) (b. 1848)
- June 21 – Bertha von Suttner, Austrian writer and pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1843)
- June 22 – Princess Phannarai, Thai princess consort (b. 1838)
- June 25 – Georg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (b. 1826)
- June 28
- July 2 – Joseph Chamberlain, British politician (b. 1836)
- July 6 - Georges Legagneux pioneer French aviator (b. 1882)
- July 9 – Prince Gustav of Thurn and Taxis (b. 1848)
- July 12 – Horace Harmon Lurton, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (b. 1844)
- July 17 – Luis Uribe, Chilean naval hero (b. 1847)
- July 21 – Karl von Czyhlarz, Czech-born Austrian jurist and politician (b. 1833)
- July 23 – Vladimir Meshchersky, Russian journalist and novelist (b. 1839)
- July 29 – Pietro Pace, Maltese Roman Catholic bishop (b. 1831)
- July 31 – Jean Jaurès, French pacifist (assassinated) (b. 1859)
- August 4 – Hubertine Auclert, French feminist (b. 1848)
- August 6
- August 8
- August 9 – Roque Sáenz Peña, 16th President of Argentina (b. 1851)
- August 12 – John Philip Holland, Irish developer of the submarine (b. 1840)
- August 15 – Adolfo Carranza, Argentine lawyer (b. 1857)
- August 20 – Pope Pius X (b. 1835)
- August 23
- August 26 – Achille Pierre Deffontaines, French general (died of wounds received in action) (b. 1858)
- August 27 – Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, Austrian economist (b. 1851)
- August 28 – Leberecht Maass, German admiral (killed in action) (b. 1863)
- August 30 – Alexander Samsonov, Russian general (suicide) (b. 1859)
- September 3 – Albéric Magnard, French composer (b. 1865)
- September 5 – Charles Péguy, French poet, essayist and editor (b. 1873)
- September 11
- September 13 – Mostafa Fahmy Pasha, Egyptian politician, 7th Prime Minister of Egypt (b. 1840)
- September 14 – Nicolás Zamora, Filipino Methodist minister and bishop (b. 1875)
- September 15 – Koos de la Rey, Boer general (b. 1847)
- September 16 – C. X. Larrabee, American businessman (b. 1843)
- September 22 – Alain-Fournier, French writer (killed in action) (b. 1886)
- September 26 – August Macke, German painter (killed in action) (b. 1887)
- September 28 – Richard Warren Sears, American founder of Sears, Roebuck and Company (b. 1863)
- October 1 – Kitty Lange Kielland, Norwegian painter (b. 1843)
- October 10 – King Carol I of Romania (b. 1839)
- October 12 – Prince Oleg Konstantinovich of Russia (b. 1892)
- October 16
- Victor Arnold, Austrian actor (b. 1873)
- Antonino Paternò Castello, Marchese di San Giuliano, Italian diplomat (b. 1852)
- October 17
- October 19 – Julio Argentino Roca, Argentine general and statesman, 2-Time President of Argentina (b. 1843)
- October 21 – Dimitrie Sturdza, 4-Time Prime Minister of Romania (b. 1833)
- October 23 – José Evaristo Uriburu, Argentine politician, 12th President of Argentina (b. 1831)
- October 24 – Yevgeniya Mravina, Russian soprano (b. 1864)
- October 27 – Prince Maurice of Battenberg (b. 1891)
- October 28
- November 1 – Sir Christopher Cradock, British admiral (killed in action) (b. 1862)
- November 3 – Georg Trakl, Austrian poet (suicide) (b. 1887)
- November 5 – August Weismann, German evolutionary biologist (b. 1834)
- November 9 – Princess Therese of Saxe-Altenburg (b. 1836)
- November 14 – Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, British field marshal (b. 1832)
- November 17 – Sattar Khan, Iranian constitutional reformer and national hero (b. 1866)
- November 21 – Thaddeus C. Pound, American businessman and politician (b. 1832)
- November 28 – Johann Wilhelm Hittorf, German physicist (b. 1824)
- December 1 – Alfred Thayer Mahan, United States Navy admiral, geostrategist and historian (b. 1840)
- December 8 – Maximilian von Spee, German admiral (killed in action) (b. 1861)
- December 14 – Giovanni Sgambati, Italian pianist and composer (b. 1841)
- December 16 – Ivan Zajc, Croatian composer (b. 1832)
- December 24 – John Muir, American naturalist (b. 1838)
- Jehandad Khan, Afghan emir (executed)
- Physics – Max von Laue
- Chemistry – Theodore William Richards
- Medicine – Róbert Bárány
- Literature – not awarded
- Peace – not awarded
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Primary sources and year books
- New International Year Book 1914, Comprehensive coverage of world and national affairs, 913pp
- Beatty, Jack. The Lost History of 1914: Reconsidering the Year the Great War Began (1912) excerpt; argues the war was not inevitable
- Gilbert, Martin. A History of the Twentieth Century: Volume 1 1900-1933 (1997); global coverage of politics, diplomacy and warfare; pp 297–349; emphasis on World War I
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